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The Science Behind Ethiopia’s Hunger Crisis - Mother Jones

Featured News - Thu, 02/25/2016 - 12:00
Ethiopia's last mega-droughts killed hundreds of thousands. Could the same thing happen again? Lamont's Park Williams and Richard Seager weigh in on why the drought is not a surprise.

An Airborne Look Through the Ice - The Antarctic Sun

Featured News - Wed, 02/24/2016 - 13:00
Scientists are working to fill in one of the largest remaining blank spots on ocean charts: the sea floor beneath Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf. Lamont-Doherty's Kirsty Tinto discusses the IcePod and how it's mapping that area.

Changing Faces on the Ice - Nature

Featured News - Wed, 02/24/2016 - 12:00
Diverse faces are coming to work in the polar regions, Lamont's Robin Bell tells Nature.

Coral Reef Growth Is Declining. Is There Hope? - Christian Science Monitor

Featured News - Wed, 02/24/2016 - 12:00
Scientists find more evidence that coral reefs are suffering from environmental changes. But, they say it's not too late. Lamont's Bärbel Hönisch discusses the possibilities.

Sailing into a Storm as We Head for the Agulhas Plateau

When Oceans Leak - Fri, 02/19/2016 - 16:49
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The team aboard the JOIDES Resolution collected the first four cores of Expedition 361 from the Natal Valley site. Here, scientists prepare to open the first. (Tim Fulton/IODP) To drill down into the sea floor, the ship uses a large rig and a professional drilling crew. ( Jens Gruetzner, Alfred-Wegener-Institut for Polar and Marine Research) Professional rig personnel bring the first core aboard. Each segment is 9.5 meters long and is sectioned into smaller pieces for analysis and storage. (Tim Fulton) Scientists work the core catcher, which holds each segment of core in as it lifted from the sea floor. (Tim Fulton) Once the cores are split, they are photographed in shipboard imaging equipment called a Section Half Image Logger. (Tim Fulton) The shipboard labs are ready for scientists to go to work. Kaoru Kubota of the University of Tokyo and Xibin Han of China work on reports in the core lab. (Tim Fulton) Sedimentologists Julien Crespin of the University of Bordeaux and Alejandra Cartagena-Sierra of Notre Dame take down descriptions of the core. (Tim Fulton) Nambiyathodi Lathika, a physical properties specialist from India's National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, enters core data at the sample table. (Jens Gruetzner) Jeroen van der Lubbe of the University of Amsterdam works with a cyrogenic magnetometer to analyze the magnetic properties of a sample. (Jens Gruetzner) A map of the Agulhas Current, which the scientists of Expedition 361 are studying along with southern Africa's climate history. (Courtesy of Arnold Gordon)
The team aboard the JOIDES Resolution collected the first four cores of Expedition 361 from the Natal Valley site. Here, scientists prepare to open the first. (Tim Fulton/IODP)

Read Sidney Hemming’s first post to learn more about the goals of her two-month research cruise off southern Africa and its focus on the Agulhas Current and collecting climate records for the past 5 million years.

We finished up at our first core site yesterday, and now we are steaming south toward the Agulhas Plateau. The groups presented their summaries this morning, and the results from this site are awesome.

Inevitably there is a gap between each sediment core because of how the cores have to be taken. The drilling crew drills down to the level of the previous core’s penetration and then sends the piston core down again. There are potential coring artifacts, such as “suck-in” of sediment at the bottom, “fall-in” of sediment at the top (these are descriptive terms), or loss of sediment because the core catcher didn’t catch. That is the reason for triple – and in this case quadruple – holes at each site. The stratigraphic correlators, Steve Barker and Chris Charles, take data from the physical properties measurement tracks and work fast to determine how the cores that are coming up can be correlated to previous cores. They find the gaps and work with the drillers to ensure that the gaps from all the holes do not overlap. With the help of the lithologic description team, they also avoid parts of the core that have been disturbed by the drilling.

At the Natal Valley site, the correlators were able to achieve a continuous splice going back more than 5 million years!  We obtained samples older than that, but they are “floating”. The splice, like it probably sounds, uses the overlapping physical features in the cores to identify a combination of cores that, when pieced together, yield a full continuous record. This splice is where most of the sampling and measurements will be conducted at the post-cruise sampling party. That will probably take place in September to give enough time for the cores to be shipped to Texas A&M and, we hope, scanned with an XRF scanner in order to construct the best sampling plan.

Women scientists and technicians of Expedition 361 on UN Women in Science Day. (Tim Fulton)

Women scientists and technicians aboard the JOIDES Resolution for IODP Expedition 361 on UN Women in Science Day. (Tim Fulton)

We still do not have permission to drill in Mozambique waters. This is causing considerable anxiety for the team, and by steaming south, we will definitely not be able to drill our northern-most planned site. However, if permission comes before we finish the Agulhas Plateau site, we could still meet our Zambezi and Limpopo objectives. The Zambezi and Limpopo are major rivers that drain from the African continent. We hope to capture sediment coming from those two rivers to answer questions about rainfall and runoff and weathering.

The Agulhas Plateau is also an exciting site. It is a little bit north of the sub-tropical front, which is the northern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Today, it is under the Agulhas retroflection, where the Agulhas Current swings back toward the east (see the map at the end of the slideshow). Our goal is to understand how the position of the sub-tropical front and the Agulhas retroflection have changed through the last 5 million years, and how those changes are related to climatic variability in southern Africa.

Allison Franzese’s Ph.D. research used a time-slice approach to compare the modern composition of sediments washed in from the continents with those deposited during the last glaciation about 20,000 years ago (ice at that time covered what today is New York City). She has suggested that the path of the Agulhas retroflection was very similar between modern and glacial times. Her results are enigmatic because they indicate both a weakening of the current and a similar path for the retroflection, and these observations are inconsistent with what is predicted from physical oceanographic modeling. The cores we collect here should allow her to extend her studies back to 5 million years and achieve a much greater understanding of how the system has worked under a range of climate conditions, particularly when combined with results from the Natal Valley site and the Cape site (the final site of the cruise).

As an aside, I am pretty pleased that even though we are sailing through a storm with about 30 knot winds right now and the ship is swaying, I’m still feeling pretty good. Apparently this could change – we are heading toward the “roaring 40s”.

Sidney Hemming is a geochemist and professor of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. She uses the records in sediments and sedimentary rocks to document aspects of Earth’s history.

Sea Level Rise Could Put NYC's Proposed Transit System Under Water - Vice News

Featured News - Fri, 02/19/2016 - 09:31
Lamont geologist Klaus Jacob says that while the proposed Brooklyn-Queens Connector project solves desperate transportation needs, the problem is that it runs along current and future flood zones.

Can Germany's Renewable Energy Revolution Be Replicated in the US? - Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Featured News - Thu, 02/18/2016 - 12:00
As governments around the world invest in new energy policies and climate strategies, none has gone as far as Germany. Could the model be replicated? Lamont adjunct research scientist Beate Liepert explores the possibilities.

How the Climate Challenge Could Derail a Brilliant Human Destiny - New York Times

Featured News - Mon, 02/15/2016 - 12:00
A conversation on the importance of sustained engagement on a big challenge, whether intellectual, as in revealing spacetime ripples, or potentially existential, as in pursuing ways to move beyond energy choices that are reshaping Earth for hundreds of generations to come. Cites Lamont's review and research by a group that included Lamont Adjunct Senior Research Scientist Anders Levermann.

6 Million Years of Sediment, Studded with Tiny Fossils

When Oceans Leak - Fri, 02/12/2016 - 21:25
Jeroen van der Lubbe examines the first core brought up by the team aboard the Joides Resolution.

Jeroen van der Lubbe examines the first sediment core of Expedition 361 brought up by the team aboard the JOIDES Resolution. Photo: Sidney Hemming

Read Sidney Hemming’s first post to learn more about the goals of her two-month research cruise off southern Africa and its focus on the Agulhas Current and collecting climate records for the past 5 million years.

We have our first core! The team pulled up 254.1 meters of sediment from the Natal Valley site off southern Africa, near the start of the Agulhas Current. We think we have about 6 million years of history in that core that should be able to tell us details about the how the region’s currents and climate changed through time.

The whole core (IODP 361 U1474A) is actually several cores. Each is 9.5 meters long and is cut into sections that are 1.5 meters for analysis and storage. The top of each of those cores was jostled by the coring process, but we hope we will be able to fill the gaps with cores from the two other holes we plan to drill at the Natal Valley site. It has become standard in the International Ocean Discovery Program’s (IODP) paleoceanography drilling to core three holes, deliberately offsetting the gaps, in order to have a full record from the site. This presents a challenge for our stratigraphic correlators, Steve Barker and Chris Charles, but they are definitely up for it. They spent the time in port and during transit working hard to master the software.  I understand it is powerful, but not easy to work with (a sign on one of their computers says: “exercise extreme patience”).

 Sidney Hemming

Steve Barker’s computer used for correlations comes with a warning: “Caution: exercise extreme patience.” Photo: Sidney Hemming

Seeing our first core come up was very exciting. As it was happening, we were getting age estimates in real time from the paleontologists, and not too much later from the paleomagnetists. The paleomagnetic measurements appear robust, and they show several magnetic reversals, so we can use the known magnetic reversal time scale to help date each part of the core. The foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil species changes in the core catchers (more on this below) are providing a similar estimate of the ages as the paleomagnetics. This is so exciting to watch in real time, I keep thinking about whether there is a way we could reenact this in a classroom setting.

Now we are on the second hole. Hole B is primarily being taken for squeezing out pore waters – this is the water captured in pores of the deep sediment. We hope it can tell us about the salinity and oxygen isotope composition of the water long ago. The oxygen isotope composition of glacial water is important for understanding how much ice there was, as well as the temperature of the deep ocean. Sophie Hines, a graduate student working with Jess Adkins at Caltech, is leading the effort. She and the other four geochemists, including Lamont’s Allison Franzese, are working hard to get the pore waters squeezed. It is a tough operation, and the presses are not always as cooperative as one might wish. The geochemists decorated the most cantankerous press with a photo of Jess, who wrote the proposal for the pore waters project, to ensure they remember whom to blame.

I mentioned the foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils (calcareous means they build their shells with calcium carbonate) that were found in the core catchers. At the bottom of the core barrel – remember Lisa’s analogy to the straw in the milk shake – there is a mechanism that is open when the barrel is going down into the mud. When the core barrel has penetrated into the sediment and the rig starts to pull it up, that mechanism snaps shut, thereby catching the core and keeping it from falling back out, hence the term core catcher. Some of the sediment goes into the core catcher, and it’s a bit messy, so it is taken immediately and used for examining the microfossil content. Sometimes it’s disappointing, but in this case, the microfossils except for the siliceous ones are working out really well. More about the siliceous ones in another post.

Sidney Hemming is a geochemist and professor of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. She uses the records in sediments and sedimentary rocks to document aspects of Earth’s history.

Court Ruling on Clean Power Plan a Setback, But…

The 2015 Paris Climate Summit - Wed, 02/10/2016 - 16:47
 Wikimedia Commons

Big Bend Power Station, a coal-fired plant, near Apollo Beach, Fla. Photo: Wikimedia Commons

The U.S. Supreme Court this week put a hold on one of the key programs in the United States’ efforts to control CO2 emissions and combat global warming. The decision puts aside new regulations to control emissions from power plants until a challenge from more than two dozen states is resolved in federal appeals court.

The court’s 5-4 decision to postpone implementation of the Clean Power Plan represents a clear setback for the Obama administration’s efforts to combat climate change; but the damage to the U.S. ability to meet pledges it made at the Paris climate summit in December “is less than it might seem,” says Michael Gerrard in a commentary posted on the Sabin Center for Climate Change Law’s website.

“That is not because the Clean Power Plan wasn’t important; it is because the plan didn’t do nearly enough,” says Gerrard, director of the Sabin Center.

Gerrard notes that the plan’s emissions reductions won’t begin until 2022, meaning they won’t play a role in meeting the nation’s stated goal of reducing carbon emissions by 17 percent by 2020. Even beyond that date, the plan alone won’t be enough to meet the goal of reducing emissions by 26 to 28 percent by 2025. That, and future reductions, will depend on many other measures. Those would include higher efficiency standards for buildings and appliances and greater efforts to reduce energy consumption in the industrial and transportation sectors.

“In sum,” Gerrard writes, “while the Clean Power Plan is the biggest game in town in terms of achieving the Paris goals, it is by no means the only game in town. While we express our justifiable fury over the Supreme Court’s action, we need to bear in mind that there are many other things that the U.S. must do in the next several years to control greenhouse gas emissions.”

You can read the full commentary at the Sabin Center’s website.

For more on the court’s ruling:

Gearing Up for Our First Cores

When Oceans Leak - Mon, 02/08/2016 - 14:56
Bubba Attryde, a core technician, shows scientists on the <i>Joides Resolution</i> some of the ship's drilling tools. Tim Fulton/IODP

Bubba Attryde, a core technician, shows scientists on the JOIDES Resolution some of the ship’s drilling tools. Tim Fulton/IODP

Read Sidney Hemming’s first post to learn more about the goals of her two-month research cruise off southern Africa and its focus on the Agulhas Current and collecting climate records for the past 5 million years.

Our first day on the ocean was pretty rough. We left the harbor in Mauritius into high winds and choppy seas, and I don’t think I was alone in feeling pretty miserable.  I woke up the next day to calm seas and a much better perspective.

We have been busy with meetings, training sessions, and planning for the core flow, and I think people are getting close to being ready for the 12-hour shifts. My shift is 3 p.m. to 3 a.m., and my co-chief scientist Ian Hall’s is the opposite. It works out pretty well relative to our home clocks (when I start my shift, it’s 8 a.m. back in New York), and we’ll have significant overlap. I plan to get started by noon, and Ian will hang around until 6 or so before going to bed. We have decided we’ll take a break for exercise—should be a good strategy.

The staff is wonderful on the ship. They feed me great meals, and there is even an espresso machine right outside the science office where I sit. Today Kevin Grieger, our operations manager, gave us a tour to the bridge, the drilling rig and the core shack, where we met Bubba Attryde, who has been the core specialist since Glomar Challenger days and continues to make innovations. We went down through the motors and pumps, past the moon pool, and out to the JOIDES Resolution‘s helideck.

The helideck has a special role this cruise. On March 26, Ian Hall and Steve Barker will be running in the IAAF/Cardiff University World Half Marathon Championships. It requires 328 laps around the deck, which is noisy and hot. They are doing it to raise money for a small South African charity called the Goedgedacht Trust, which promotes education to help poor rural African children escape grinding poverty. Ian has learned that the money raised will help bring solar power to schools. When we reach Cape Town, some of the children plan to tour the ship.

It is now official that we will start with the Natal Valley site while we wait for clearance from Mozambique to work on what would have been our first site.

The Natal Valley is at the beginning of the Agulhas Current, where the waters flowing through the Mozambique Channel and the East Madagascar Current come together and flow along the southern Africa coast. A central goal of the expedition is to understand the history of the Agulhas Current and its role in climate variability, and this site could help us characterize how the microorganisms and the land-derived sediments it carries have changed over the last 5 million years.

Recently published evidence from the past 270,000 years from very close to the Natal Valley site also shows that there have been significant changes in rainfall in southern Africa on millennial time scales. We are very interested in getting a longer record of rainfall changes with this expedition. So in effect, we have the dual goals of understanding the nearby climate record from Africa and understanding the ocean currents below which the core is located—both the Agulhas Current and deep water circulation, which currently flows north along the western Natal Valley and is the reason for the sediment “contourite” accumulation that we are coring.

We will be getting to the Natal Valley site about 8 p.m. local time on Tuesday, so we should have cores coming in before daylight on Wednesday. You can feel the excitement start to build. Our staff scientist, Leah, has organized everybody well. The groups gave reports on their methods this morning and will turn in drafts of their methods before we get to the first site. It’s getting close!

Sidney Hemming is a geochemist and professor of Earth and Environmental Sciences atLamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. She uses the records in sediments and sedimentary rocks to document aspects of Earth’s history.

Climate Change Is Leaving Native Plants Behind - KQED

Featured News - Mon, 02/08/2016 - 12:00
Animals and weeds are bounding up California's warming hills, while native plants are stuck in place. “There’s a legitimate concern that many plant species are simply not evolved to be able to shift their population distributions as fast as the current climate-change event will require,” said Lamont's Park Williams.

On the Surface, Feeling Further Away from the Ocean than Ever

Sampling the Barren Sea - Mon, 02/08/2016 - 11:11

By Frankie Pavia

How far is five kilometers, vertically? We leaned over the edge of the boat, staring into the water, watching the last glimmer of light from the in-situ pump disappear into the abyss. The furthest down we could see the pump was 50 meters from the surface—remarkably far to still see light anywhere in the ocean, courtesy of the life-devoid upper waters of the South Pacific.

That’s a comprehensible depth, 50 meters. It’s about the same as a 15-story building. But five kilometers? My German colleague and I could conceptualize five kilometers horizontally—the same as her bike ride to work, the same as the first ever race I ran. Neither of us could quite grasp what flipping 5 kilometers 90 degrees might mean, as our pump continued on its 3-hour vertical journey to that depth.

Ocean researcher Frankie Pavia.

Ocean researcher Frankie Pavia.

The spirit of exploration is embedded within all scientific research. It is a quest to probe and understand the unknown. But oceanographers and astronauts have something more than that—the work they do also involves the physical exploration of spaces that have yet to come under dominion of humanity. The ocean and space have not yet been rendered permanently habitable. No human lives at sea or in space without having to depend on land for survival.

I expected to conclude the cruise with a deeper connection to the ocean. I expected to feel like I had performed an act of exploration by sailing from one land mass to another, and as a result to have gained some fundamental understanding of the ocean’s spatial domain.

Yet a week after I stepped foot from the FS Sonne for good, I am left feeling like the ocean is further from my grasp than ever. Five kilometers depth, and all I did was sail across a tiny fraction of the surface. Sure, I hauled back samples from the deep, and I will certainly learn an incredible amount about it from chemical measurements. But did I explore the deep ocean? Is it possible to explore a place without actually traveling there?

I wonder how astronauts feel when they return to Earth. Just like oceanographers experience only the top of the ocean, astronauts only scratch the surface of an incomprehensibly large volume of space. Does it make them feel like a part of something greater, or does experiencing its massive scale make them feel even smaller?

While the ocean is a vast nexus of life, space is seemingly devoid of it. The ocean certainly holds clues as to how life formed on our planet, and where it may exist on distant moons in our solar system. On Mars, it is the locations of long-dessicated oceans and running water where life is thought to have been possible in the distant past. In habitability, oceans are our pluperfect, Earth is our future perfect, space is our future.

The connection between oceans and space will certainly be a source of excitement for science in the coming years. Ice-covered moons in our solar system have liquid water oceans; surely there are planets and moons orbiting stars other than ours that have them as well. How will we ever understand them if we have only seen such a small portion of the ocean’s volume on Earth?

And so we plunge onward into the indomitable vastness of the oceans, of space. I came away feeling further than ever from the oceans after this cruise. To fix that, I must keep exploring.

Frankie Pavia is a second-year graduate student studying oceanography and geochemistry at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

Iron Fertilization Might Not Make Oceans Better Carbon Sinks - Eos

Featured News - Fri, 02/05/2016 - 12:00
New research from Lamont's Kassandra Costa suggests more iron during the last ice age did not mean more algae production in the equatorial Pacific, pointing to possible futility of a controversial geoengineering idea.

Setting Off for Two Months at Sea

When Oceans Leak - Wed, 02/03/2016 - 18:59
The scientists aboard the Joides Resolution for Expedition 361

The scientists of Expedition 361, including Co-Chief Scientist Sidney Hemming, will be spending the next two months aboard the Joides Resolution.

Read Sidney Hemming’s first post to learn more about the goals of her two-month research cruise off Southern Africa and its focus on the Agulhas Current and collecting climate records for the past 5 million years.

It’s almost midnight here, and we’ll be setting sail around 7 a.m. The transit will take approximately six days to the first coring site. Right now, we have the uncertainty that we may not have Mozambique clearance in time for the first intended site, so we will have to make a decision when we get to the tip of Madagascar about whether to head toward the proposed first site, or instead go to the site that would be #4, the northernmost site in South African waters. Apparently this is a normal thing that the permissions are not granted until just as the ship leaves (we hope that happens here), and in our case we have rumors that the form has been signed but it is unclear where it is.

So Kevin Grieger, our operations manager, has been calculating times for alternative plans and considering plans we may have to drop if we cannot stick with the original schedule. We may have to skip some of the operations, and we may even have to forgo a site. Our highest priority site is the sixth out of six on our geographic path, so we have to be judicious in our planning in order to ensure we get there. And it is the closest to the port in Cape Town — word is we only have eight hours in the schedule between the coring site and the port — exciting but also scary because of all the work we have to get done before getting into port.

My husband, Gary, and I had fun in Mauritius before we came to meet up with the JOIDES Resolution. Ian Hall (the other co-chief), Leah LeVay (the IODP staff scientist) and I boarded the ship on Jan. 30, and we went into Port Luis for dinner that night to meet up with a few of the scientists, Allison Franzese, Steve Barker (former Lamont post-doc), and Sophie Hines. Sophie is a Caltech graduate student who is leading the pore water sampling program for her advisor Jess Adkins (also a former Lamont post-doc) who was unable to participate in the expedition.

So we have been living on the ship since the 30th and getting ready for the cruise. That involves a lot of meetings and training. Many of the science team did not know each other before we got here, and we also did not know about the others’ research plans. The plans will evolve as we discuss potential overlaps and collaborations. And they will also change as we find out what we really are going to encounter in the cores. We are all getting to know each other and learning what each others’ interests are and trying to come up with a plan that will maximize what we can discover with the materials we will collect on this cruise. It is very different than anything I have done before, and it is exciting. I think it will be a really rewarding experience. The group seems to already have developed a good rapport, and we are all very optimistic.

Before the <i>Joides Resolution</i> leaves port, Lisa Crowder (left) and Rebecca Robinson (right) take students from a girls' school in Mauritius on a tour. Photo: Tim Fulton/IODP

Before the JOIDES Resolution leaves port, Lisa Crowder (left) and Rebecca Robinson (right) take students from a girls’ school in Mauritius on a tour. Photo: Tim Fulton/IODP

While we have been in Mauritius, the BBC picked up on our work, and twitter has been atwitter with blurbs about the cruise and people on the cruise. We have also had quite a few tours through the ship. Dick Norris (from Scripps Institution of Oceanography) and I went to a girls’ school yesterday and discussed global change and encouraged them to think about science. A small group of the girls from that school came for a tour today, and they seemed really keen and engaged. Lisa Crowder, who oversees the ship’s technicians working with core processing protocols and lab equipment, gave a really awesome show that we all enjoyed! She used the straw-in-the-milkshake analogy for coring in the ocean. It was a great visual!

It is supposed to be quite windy tomorrow, so I’m nervous about being seasick and I’m going to take my Dramamine first thing in the morning. I sure hope I am going to get my sea legs quickly!

Sidney Hemming is a geochemist and professor of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. She uses the records in sediments and sedimentary rocks to document aspects of Earth’s history.

New Columbia Center Aims to Tap Business for Climate Studies - Chronicle of Philanthropy

Featured News - Tue, 02/02/2016 - 13:51
With government funding for climate science stagnant, a new center at Columbia University is working to engage corporate donors to back research on environmental changes and how humans can adapt to them. "It’s a very new way of funding science," said Lamont's Peter deMenocal, director of the Center for Climate & Life.

Listen to Seismic Waves from Inside the Earth - The Creators Project

Featured News - Tue, 02/02/2016 - 12:00
Lamont's Ben Holtzman and the Seismic Sound Lab turn data from seismometers into a visual and auditory experience.

Center for Climate & Life: Changing the Way We Do & Fund Science - Nature

Featured News - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 15:23
Columbia's Center for Climate & Life is engaging corporate philanthropists to boost funding for research into the effects of projected environmental changes and how human systems can adapt.

Greenland's Glaciers & Climate Change - 60 Minutes

Featured News - Sun, 01/31/2016 - 12:00
60 Minutes reports from Greenland's Petermann Glacier, then visits with Lamont-Doherty's Peter deMenocal at the Core Lab to discuss some of the most significant efforts to study climate change happening today.

European Summers Are at Their Warmest in Two Millennia - Climate Progress

Featured News - Fri, 01/29/2016 - 10:52
We may have underestimated how hot European summers are today, compared to the region's past, according to a new study. Lamont's Jason Smerdon explains.



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