News aggregator

'Butterflies of the Sea' Record Ocean Conditions - AGU Blogs

Featured News - Thu, 12/12/2013 - 16:58
Lamont-Doherty researcher Nina Keul's work to measure changing ocean chemistry by analyzing the shells of tiny marine creatures known as pteropods is discussed.

Is the West's Dry Spell Really a Megadrought? - Climate Central

Featured News - Thu, 12/12/2013 - 15:47
The drought that has been afflicting most of the Western states for the past 13 years could be a multi-decade dry spell, says Lamont-Doherty scientist Edward Cook.

Explore the Arctic Ocean With ‘IceTracker’

pfirman icetrackerThis week, we are launching a test of “IceTracker”—a tool that allows users to see the trajectories of Arctic sea ice forward or backward from any day between 1981 and 2012, as well as sea-ice speed, air temperature, water depth and the age of the sea ice.

AGU 2013: Social Science Perspectives on Natural Hazards

//www.flickr.com/photos/tree_trunks/Learn about improving communication of and planning for natural hazards from a social science perspective at AGU2013.

The R/V Marcus G. Langseth: Ocean Explorer

R/V Marcus G. LangsethThe Marcus G. Langseth, a research vessel operated by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, traverses the world’s oceans conducting marine seismic studies that contribute to new understanding of Earth systems. The ship typically spends half the year or more on research expeditions led by Lamont-Doherty scientists and colleagues from other research institutes. Mentions of cruises may conjure up [...]

AGU 2013: Key Events From the Earth Institute

dsc_0040 BangladeshScientists from Columbia University’s Earth Institute will present important research results and special events at the Dec. 9-13 San Francisco meeting of the American Geophysical Union, the world’s largest gathering of earth and space scientists. Here is a guide in rough chronological order.

IRI@AGU: Schedule of Events + Q&As

IRIatAGUFour scientists and one PhD student from the International Research Institute for Climate and Society are attending the 2013 American Geophysical Union's Fall Meeting. Below are links to Q&As with each of the presenters and the schedule of their posters and presentations.

Shaking in Texas Makes Officials Worry about Injection from Drilling - Energy Wire

Featured News - Thu, 12/05/2013 - 12:00
Work by Lamont-Doherty seismologists in 2012 that linked earthquakes in Ohio to underground wastewater injection wells cited.

From Computer Models to Calendar Models, These Climate Scientists Are Workin' It - Tree Hugger

Featured News - Wed, 12/04/2013 - 12:00
Climate models! A bad pun becomes bright new way to talk about climate change.

Scientists Call for Early Warning System for Sudden Climate Change Impacts - Climate Wire

Featured News - Wed, 12/04/2013 - 12:00
Though average temperatures may slowly creep higher over the coming century, changes in some places may come faster than societies can adapt. Lamont's Jerry McManus comments on a new National Research Council Report.

New Wall Calendar Humanizes Science - LiveScience

Featured News - Tue, 12/03/2013 - 12:00
"We really wanted to push the climate models pun and have them modeling," said Lamont's Rebecca Fowler. "We just felt like that would be a more effective means of communication, and they were all happy to do it."

Could Weakening Winds Threaten Pacific Northwest's Water? - Climate Wire

Featured News - Mon, 12/02/2013 - 12:00
A new study in Science attributes declines in mountain stream flow in the Pacific Northwest to a slowing of the westerly winds but Lamont's Richard Seager says the decline might also be due to greater evaporation.

Ways We Can Maintain Water's Integrity - Poughkeepsie Journal

Featured News - Sat, 11/30/2013 - 12:00
Lamont-Doherty's permeable paving, which absorbs rainwater where it falls, cited.

Generation Toxic - OnEarth Magazine

Featured News - Mon, 11/25/2013 - 12:00
The author measures her exposure to black carbon using a portable air-monitoring device developed by Lamont-Doherty environmental geochemist Steven Chillrud.

Bloomberg's Legacy: Climate Change and NYC's Future - Inside Climate News

Featured News - Thu, 11/21/2013 - 12:00
"I was realistic enough not to have unrealistic expectations," said Lamont's Klaus Jacob, the geophysicist who served on the city's climate panel and saw his own home flooded by Sandy. "Engineered measures such as sea walls, berms, levees, and raising of structures ... take many years if not decades to finance and implement."

Reimagining New York - PBS Nova

Featured News - Thu, 11/21/2013 - 12:00
What will New York City be like 400 years from now? That's the city we should plan for Lamont's Klaus Jacobs tells PBS Nova.

Climate Science: The Challenge of Hot Drought - Nature

Featured News - Thu, 11/21/2013 - 10:11
In a new study in the Journal of Climate, Lamont's Ben Cook, Jason Smerdon, Richard Seager and Ed Cook find that multi-year, widespread droughts in North America like the one that extended through several regions of the U.S. last year may be more common than we thin.k

Fire on the Mountain, Fire in the ‘Burbs

The Broadleaf Papers - Wed, 11/20/2013 - 11:19

I walked out of the house Thursday morning when my nose detected it – a forest fire! Having worked for two years in the piney woods of southwest Georgia, I had become accustomed to and, actually, come to love forest fires. That classic line kept coming into my mind, “the scent of fire in the morning reminds me of healthy forests.” The scent can be better than a campfire. It can be a little sweeter. That morning, it filled the entire town. Firefighters were just beginning to quench the fire. As of Saturday night, it had burned about 40 ha (ca 100 acres), but was still uncontained on its northern end. I might have been one of the few people to be thrilled to be in a smoke-filled town. It reminded me that we lived in a heavily forested area, and an active ecological event was playing out just up the hill.

It was fascinating to see the coverage of this fire. There were many resources thrown at it. It is understandable. Clausland Mountain is beautiful, beautiful enough that it is ringed by expensive houses. Twenty-six fire units, composed of about 150 firefighters, were actively fighting the fire (about one fire unit for every 1.5 hectares (3.8 acres)). Two helicopters were brought in to douse the flames. The breathless words of the reporter are fascinating as well, “remote areas” and “extremely dangerous.”

The large response is what happens in the wildland-urban interface, especially outside of one of the largest cities in the world. The conflict between humans and ecological processes has been on the rise as we move out into natural areas and as we become more aware of important ecological processes that maintain ecosystems and the services they provide for humanity. Fire is one of these processes.

 

 N. Pederson

The aftermath of the November 2013 Clausland Mountain Fire. Photo: N. Pederson

 

So, Sunday we went on a hike to see the impact of the fire. Bushwhacking, we went into the northern end where the fire was still smoldering (though the fire took care of many bushes). It is steep and the ash makes the slope a bit slippery. Much of the leaf litter was consumed, though not completely. In some places, logs were consumed down to the mineral soil. Death shadows are evident. The potentially severe rainstorms approaching from the west should put out the fire. (Update: they did.)

 

 N. Pederson

Death shadow of a consumed tree. This tree was dead before the fire. Photo: N. Pederson

 

It will be interesting to see how the forest responds. Fire is an important ecological process. It reduces the disease and pest load in an ecosystem; it is an antiseptic in a way. It favors some plants more than others. Like me, fire favors blueberries! Oak trees in the eastern United States do not seem to be regenerating very well over the last 40-50 years. The re-introduction of fire is today’s response to a lack of oak regeneration. Much money is being spent on prescribed fires and education about fire. The lack of oak regeneration seems complex. It is said that the rise of mesophytic species, the species “taking the place” of oak, is changing the forest in such a way that it ecologically dampens the forest, making it hard for fire to take hold. However, the re-introduction of fire doesn’t seem to be having its hypothesized impact – oaks still do not seem to be regenerating in experiments employing fire, while mesophytic species seem to be handling the fire pretty well. Important for the context of this ecological scenario, many changes have occurred in the forest over the last 50-100 years, all of which could be a factor of a reduction in oak regeneration – increased deer populations, loss of important megafauna, and changing land-use and cultural patterns (Hello Smoky Bear!). And, climate change might be playing a direct role in the “mesophication” of the East.

One physical mechanism has been detected – flammability of and differential drying of forest fuels (leaves). Fire is a very physical process. The variation in forest fuels, especially the finer fuels that carry fire in wetter regions, plays an important role in flammability. Thinner leaves absorb moisture more easily. Large, curling leaves, especially lobed leaves, dry faster. Curling leaves make the duff (or “litter”*), the fuel layer, fluffier, allowing better oxygenation of fire, to literally fuel the fire even more. One hypothesis for why eastern forests burn less is the loss of the great American icon, the American chestnut tree. Research by Morgan Varner supports this hypothesis.

It will be especially interesting to see how the Clausland forest responds to this fire. It is getting much wetter in this part of the world. Deer populations are high because of the high human density and the amount of forest preserve in the county (there is no hunting in the area, and deer have learned home gardens are a smörgåsbord). And, the diversity in this little patch of woods is pretty amazing. On our 0.5-mile hike, if that (our 2-year-old doesn’t hike great yet), I spotted 13 major broadleaf tree species, one conifer, the fading eastern hemlock, and two small tree species (I wasn’t even trying to seek out species; there must be more). Amazingly, yellow birch, a boreal species more common to the Adirondacks, New England and southeastern Canada, is mixed in with pignut hickory and sweet birch, species more common to Virginia.

 

 N. Pederson

Yellow birch in a scorched landscape. This tree is more ‘at home’ in the far north. Seeing it here and in a fire is a pretty neat thing. Photo: N. Pederson

The understory might respond a little differently, though in the little patch we hiked, the wineberry looked just fine. Guess we’ll have to go back out and hike a little more next spring. Shucks.

 

____________

A pictorial of the aftermath of the November 2013 Clausland Mountain fire.

 

 N. Pederson

The fire line created to slow the fire; the “litter”* layer was swept away to starve the fire of fuel. Photo: N. Pederson

 N. Pederson

An eastern hemlock snag on fire. Eastern hemlock is dying of hemlock woolly-adelgid over much of the eastern U.S. This one died recently and was being consumed by the fire. Photo: N. Pederson

 

 N. Pederson

Fire flow on the north toe of the Clausland Mountain fire. Note the patchiness of the fire. Patchiness in fire severity scales across the landscape. While it can, fire doesn’t always consume everything. Photo: N. Pederson

 

 N. Pederson

Waves of fire consumption. Photo: N. Pederson

 

 N. Pederson

This section of Clausland Mountain is diverse – we counted >15 tree species without trying. Photo: N. Pederson

We met a colleague and his wife on the trail. They were out to check out the fire. They live near the burn and watched the fire grow and the efforts to stop the fire. She noted that it was like a ring of fire. Absolutely!

 

* = really? Can we get rid of the term “litter”? Fallen leaves, twigs, branches, bud scales, etc., enrich the soil by returning nutrients back to the Earth and increasing the soil’s ability to retain moisture. If that is “litter,” call me trash.

 

Climate Models for Every Month of 2014 - Climate Central

Featured News - Fri, 11/15/2013 - 12:00
Climate scientists at Lamont-Doherty and the IRI took a break from their research to be fashion models, and you can hang the results can on your wall in 2014.

Monitoring a Climate Epidemic - Los Angeles Times

Featured News - Fri, 11/15/2013 - 09:10
Typhoon Haiyan represents a sobering reminder to the international community that we cannot afford to procrastinate on climate action; uncertainty is not an excuse for inaction, writes Lamont's Adam Sobel and Harvard science historian Naomi Oreskes.
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