Case Studies in Earth & Environmental Science Journalism

Deformed Frogs.

Questions to Ponder and Discuss


Background information:

Introduction to the Malformed Amphibian Issue.  North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations.

Freaky Frogs. Newshour Transcript, December 23, 1996.

Frequently Asked Questions About Deformed Frogs.  Minnesota Pollution ontrol Agency website.

Technical Information .

Sessions, S. K., Ruth, S. B.  1990.  Explanations for naturally occurring supernumerary limbs and amphibians.  J. of Experimental Zoology, 254:38-47.

Bryant, S. V., Gardiner, D. M.  1992.  Retinoic acid, local cell-cell interactions, and pattern formation in vertebrate limbs.  Developmental Biology, 152, 1-25.

Blaustein, A. R., Kiesecker, J. M., Chivers, D. P., Anthony, R. G. 1997.  Ambient UV-B radiation causes deformities in amphibian embryos.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.., 94, 13735-737.

LaClair, J., Bantle, J. A., Dumont, J. 1998.  Photoproducts and metabolites of a common insect growth regulator produce developmental deformities in Xenopus.  Environmental Sci. and Technology, 32:10, 1453-60.

Johnson, P. T., Lunde, K. B., Ritchie, E. G., Launer, A. E. 1999.  The effect of trematode infection on amphibian limb development and survivorship.  Science, 284, 802.

Sessions, S. K., Franssen, R. A., Horner, V. L.  1999.  Morphological clues from multilegged frogs: are retinoids to blame?  Science, 284, 800.

Popular Articles.

Rebuffoni, Dean.  Deformed Frogs Prompt Investigation.  Minneapolis Star-Tribune.  September 1, 1995.  A1.

Rebuffoni, Dean.  Mutants—or What?  Minneapolis Star Tribune.  November 25, 1995.  B3.

Rebuffoni, Dean.  A Call to Keep an Eye on the Frogs.  Minneapolis Star-Tribune.  July 23, 1996.  B1.

Souder, William.  Deformed Frogs Rattle Experts.  Toronto Star.  October5, 1996. C6.

Uhlenbrock, Tom.  5-Legged Frog Crops Up in Missouri Pond; Amphibian Deformities are Causing Concern.  St. Louis Post Dispatch.  1A.

San Francisco Examiner.  Study of Deformed Frogs Pinpoints a Parasite.  Minneapolis Star-Tribune.  October 22, 1996.  A4.

Edwards, Randall.  Ohio Frogs: MIA, not Mutant.  Columbus Dispatch.  October 22, 1996.  1C.

Hallowell, C.  Trouble in the lily pads.  Time, 87, October 28, 1996.

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