Case Studies in Earth & Environmental Science Journalism

Global Warming


Questions to Ponder and Discuss

­ the difficulties of carrying out the Iron Ex experiments, and how they were overcome?

- the relationship between Iron Ex experiments and ice ages?

­ the significance of the CO2 measurements during Iron Ex I?

- the implications of the Iron Ex experiments for a geoengineering solution to global warming?



Background information:

Weart, S. R., 1997. The discovery of the risk of global warming, in Phys. Today. Jan 1997. vol. p. 34-40.

Hidore, J. J., 1996. Chapter 18, The potential for global warming, and Chaper 19, The Potential Impact of Global Warming. In: (Ed.), Global Environmental Change: Its Nature and Impact. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, pp. 214-235.


Scientific Papers: Hansen's Testimony to Congress

Hansen, J., Johnson, D., Lacis, A., Lebedeff, S., Lee, P., Rind, D. and Russell, G., 1981. Climate impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Science, 213: 957-966. (28 Aug 1981)

Jones, P. d., Wigley, T. M. L., Folland, C. K., Parker, D. E., Angell, J. K., Lebedeff, S. and Hansen, J. E., 1988. Evidence for global warming in the past decade. Nature, 332: 790.

Hansen, J. E. and Lebedeff, S., 1988. Global surafce air temperatures: Update through 1987. Geophys. Res. Lett., 15: 323-326.

Hansen, J., Lacis, A., Ruedy, R., Sato, M. and Wilson, H., 1993. How sensitive is the world's climate?, in National Geographic Research & Exploration. vol. 9, p. 142-158.


Popular Articles: Hansen's Testimony to Congress

Hanson, K., 1980. Carbon Dioxide, in Weatherwise. Dec 1980. vol. p. 253-258.

Burns, D. M., 1981, Climate and CO2, New York Times, p. 25, Apr. 17, 1981.

Iker, S., 1981. Are we changing the world's climate, in Int. Wildlife. July/Aug '81. vol. 11, p. 12-15.

Sullivan, W., 1981, Study finds warming trend that could raise sea levels, New York Times, p. A1+, Aug 22, 1981.

editor, 1981, Heating up the Atmosphere, New York Times, p. 22, Aug 27, 1981.

anon, 1981. CO2 results fuel 'greenhouse' debate, in Science News. Sept 5, 1981. vol. 120, p. 152.

anon, 1981, Warming of world's climate expected to begin in the 80's, New York Times, p. B14, Jan 7, 1982.

Shabecoff, P., 1983, E.P.A. report says Earth will heat up beginning in the 1990's, New York Times, p. A1+, Oct 18, 1983.

Shabecoff, P., 1983, Haste on global warming trend is opposed, New York Times, p. A1+, Oct 21, 1983.

Herbert, W., 1983. Long hot future: warmer earth appears inevitable, in Science News. Oct 22 '83. vol. 124, p. 260.

editor, 1983, How to live in a greenhouse, New York Times, p. D18, Oct 23, 1983.

Sullivan, W., 1983, So far, greenhouse effect heats only debate, New York Times, p. ??, Oct. 23, 1983.

Golden, F., 1983. Hot times for the old orb, in Time. Oct 31 '83. vol. 122, p. 84.

Keerdoja, E., 1983. Is the Earth getting hotter?, in Newsweek. Oct 31 '83. vol. 102, p. 89-90.

Lowther, W., 1983. Preparing for a warmer earth, in Macleans. Oct 31 '83. vol. 96, p. 45.

Oppenheimer, M., 1983, To delay global warming, New York Times, p. 27, Nov 9, 1983.

Monastersky, R., 1988. Has the greenhouse taken effect?, in Science News. Apr 30, 1988. vol. 133, p. 282.

Shabecoff, P., 1988, Global Warming has begun, expert tells Senate, New York Times, p. A1+, June 24, 1988.

Weisskopf, M., 1988, Scientist says greenhouse effect is setting in, Washington Post, p. A4, June 24, 1988.

Maugh, T. H., II, 1988, Scientists discount drought tie to 'greenhouse' warming trend, Los Angeles Times, p. 24, June 25, 1988.

Beardsley, T., 1988. Getting Warmer?, in Scientific American. July 1988. vol. ??, p. ??

Monastersky, R., 1988. Scientist says greenhouse warming is here, in Science News. July 2, 1988. vol. 134, p. 4.

Brand, D., 1988. Is the Earth warming up?, in Time. July 4, 1988. vol. ??, p. 18.

Smart, T., 1988. The Earth's alarm bells are ringing, in Business Week. July 11, 1988. vol. ??, p. 29.

Begley, S., 1988. The Greenhouse Effect (cover story), in Newsweek. July 11, 1988. vol. ??, p. 16-20.

Michaels, P., 1989, The Greenhouse Climate of Fear, Washington Post, p. ??, Jan 8, 1989.

Hansen, J. E., 1989, I'm not being an alarmist about the greenhouse effect, Washington Post, p. A23, Feb 11, 1989.

Shabecoff, P., 1989, Global Warming: Experts ponder bewildering feedback effects, New York Times, p. C1+, Jan 17, 1989.

Shabecoff, P., 1989, U.S. Data since 1985 fail to show warming trend, New York Times, p. A1+, Jan 26, 1989.

Shabecoff, P., 1989, Global warmth in '88 is found to set a record, New York Times, p. A1+, Feb 4, 1989.

Stevens, W. K., 1989, With cloudy crystal balls, scientists race to assess global warming, New York Times, p. C1+, Feb 7, 1989.

Shabecoff, P., 1989, Scientist says budget office altered his testimony, New York Times, p. A1+, May 8, 1989.

Shabecoff, P., 1989, White House admits censoring testimony , New York Times, p. C1+, May 9, 1989.

Peterson, C., 1989, Experts, OMB spar on global warming, Washington Post, p. ??, May ?, 1989.

Lewis, A., 1989, The Long and the Short of It, New York Times, p. A29 (op/ed), May 11, 1989.

Hovrsten, P., 1989, Greenhouse vs. White House: Climatologist caught in the middle, U.S.A. Today, p. ??, May 12, 1989.

Wade, N., 1989, Crying Wolf in the Greenhouse, New York Times, p. A18 (op/ed), July 3, 1989.

Hansen, J. E., 1989, Let's not count on the Earth to heal itself: Wolf in the greenhouse, New York Times, p. A18 (op/ed), Aug 1, 1989.

Wright, K., ?? Heating the Global Warming Debate, in ?? ?? vol. ??, p. ??

Jenkins, H., Jr., 1993, Al Gore leads a purge, Wall Street Journal, p. ??, May 25, 1993.

Singer, S. F., 1994, Climate claims wither under luminous lights of science, Washington Times, p. A18, Nov 29, 1994.

Stevens, W. K., 1995, Global warming experts call human role likely, New York Times, p. ??, Sept 10, 1995.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1996. Summary for Policymakers. In: J. T. Houghton, L. G. M. Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg and K. Maskell (Ed.), Climate Change 1995. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 3-7.

Hansen, J., 1996. Climate Change: Understanding Global Warming. In: R. Lanza (Ed.), One World: The Health and Survival of the Human Species in the 21st Century. Health Press, Santa Fe, pp. 173-190.


Scientific Papers: Iron Fertilization of the Oceans

Martin, J. H. and Fitzwater, S. E., 1988. Iron deficiency limits phytoplankton growth in the north-east Pacific subarctic. Nature, 331: 341-343.

Martin, J. H., Fitzwater, S. E. and Gordon, R. M., 1990. Iron deficiency limits phytoplanton growth in Antarctic waters. Global Biogeo. Cyc., 4: 5-12.

Chisholm, S. W. and Morel, F. M. M., 1991. Preface to special issue on "What controls Phytoplankton Production in Nutrient-Rich Areas of the Open Sea?" Limn. Oceanog., 36: ??

Martin, J. H., Coale, D. H., Johnson, K. S., Fitzwater, S. E., Gordon, R. M., Tanner, S. J., Hunter, C. N., Elrod, v. A., Nowicki, J. L., Coley, T. L., Barber, R. T., Lindley, S., Watson, A. J., Scoy, K. V., Law, C. S., Liddicoat, M. I., Ling, R., Stanton, T., Stockel, J., Collins, C., Anderson, A., Bibigare, R., Ondrusek, M., Latasa, M., Millero, F. J., Lee, K., Yao, W., Zhang, J. Z., Friederich, G., Sakamoto, C., Chavez, F., Buck, K., Kolber, Z., Greene, R., Falkowski, P., Chisholm, S. W., Hoge, F., Swift, R., Yungel, J., Turner, S., Nightingale, P., Hatton, A., Liss, P. and Tindale, N. W., 1994. Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature, 371: 123-129.

Coale, K. H., Johnson, K. s., Fitzwater, s. E., Gordon, R. M., Tanner, S., Chavez, F. P., Frioli, L., Sakamoto, C., Rogers, R., Millero, F., Steinberg, P., Nightingale, P., Cooper, D., Cochlan, W. P., Landry, M. R., Constantinou, J., Rollwagern, G., Trasvina, A. and Kudela, R., 1996. A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by an ecosystem-scale iron fertilization experiment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature, 383: 495-501.


Popular Articles: Iron Fertilization of the Oceans

Booth, W., 1990, Ironing Out 'Greenhouse Effect': Fertilizing Oceans is Proposed to Spur Algae, Washington Post, p. A1+, 20 May 1990.

Rosendahl, B. R., 1990. Pumping up the Ocean, in Sea Frontiers. Sept/Oct 1990. vol. p. 3.

anon, 1991. Ironing away a greenhouse wrinkle, in Science News. 26 Jan 1991. vol. ??, p. 63.

Kunzig, R., 1991. Earth on Ice, in Discover. April 1991. vol. p. 55-61.

Roberts, L., 1991. Report Nixes "Geritol" Fix for Global Warming. Science, 253: 1490-1491. (27 Sept 1991)

Watson, A., 1993, The iron rule on the high seas, Manchester Guardian, p. ??, 4 November 1993.

Kerr, R. A., 1994. Iron fertilization: A tonic, but no cure for the greenhouse. Science, 263: 1089-1090. (25 Feb 1994)

Monastersky, R., 1994. Pumping Iron: Too Weak to Slow Warming, in Science News. March 5, 1994. vol. 145, p. 148.

Kunzig, R., 1994. The Iron Man's Revenge, in Discover. June 1994. vol. p. 32-35.

Van Scoy, K. and Coale, K., 1994. Pumping Iron in the Pacific, in New Scientist. Dec. 3, 1994. vol. p. 32-35.

Monastersky, R., 1995. Iron versus the Greenhouse: Oceanographers cautiously explore a global warming therapy, in Science News. Sept 30, 1995. vol. 148, p. 220-221.

Pearce, F., 1996. Extra iron makes blue deserts bloom, in New Scientist. Oct 12, 1996. vol. p. 4.

Broad, W. J., 1996, Debating use of iron as curb of climate, New York Times, p. ??, Nov 12, 1996.

Warsh, D., 1996, Fisherman, don't sell that boat, Boston Globe, p. C1, Nov 19, 1996.


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