Case Studies in Earth & Environmental Science Journalism
How did each side characterize their own motives? How did they characterize the motives of their opposition? What techniques did each side use in order to gain reader sympathy? What techniques were used to arouse reader suspicion?
Did the reporting and rhetoric about dead whales seem different from that in the Navy / Ewing examples? Which side made the best case that they had science backing them up? Why might the public respond differently to whales being killed by the Makah instead of by the Navy?
Why did Makah elder Alberta Thompson receive so much attention? How did coverage of her unorthodox views compare to that given to "Intelligent Design" proponents or would-be earthquake forecasters? Who were the other individuals on whom the media heavily focused?
How was the issue of race and ethnicity handled by different sources? Why do authors like Scully (2002) and Green (2003) see the issue so differently from others such as Johnson & Aradanas (1999) and Yeagley (2001)? Did any readings suggest racist beliefs or intent?
How are Native Americans usually portrayed in the context of environmental issues? What does it mean to say that the Makah have "laid to rest the myth of the ecological Indian" (Sea Shepherds position statement, 2002)?
Some environmental groups seemed far more vocal about the Makah issue than others. Why is that the case? For instance, see Dunagan (1998) and Dougherty (2001, and the responses to him). How and why did the involvement of the Sea Shepherds change over time?
What was the reason for the court injunction of December 20, 2002? How did various groups describe it?
Why do people hunt whales? How have motives for, and attitudes about, whaling changed through time? What are the main types of whaling still practiced today?
What is the conservation status of the gray whale? Why was this once of concern? Why is it now seemingly of less concern?
What laws regulate whaling? What institutions administer and oversee them? How are the Makah still allowed to hunt whales?
Who are the Makah? Why did they resume whaling? How did their new whaling method differ from traditional techniques? What was the reason they gave to explain this?
Who are the Sea Shepherds? What steps were they willing to take to disrupt the hunt?
What is the difference between environmentalism and animal rights?
Clapham, P.J., Young, S.B. and Brownell Jr., R.L. (1999). Baleen whales: conservation issues and the status of the most endangered populations. Mammal Review 29: 35-60.
Reeves, R.R. (2002). The origins and characters of 'aboriginal subsistence' whaling: a global review. Mammal Review 32: 71-106.
Safe Passing. (2001). Documents revealed under Freedom of Information Act:
Native Americans and the Environment. (2000). Management Plan for Makah Treaty Gray Whale Hunting for the Years 1998-2002.
U.S. Department of Commerce/NOAA. (1999). Preliminary Report on Makah Tribe Gray Whale Hunt. May 19, 1999.
Ringuette, Ron, and Karen Porter. (2000). Makah Whaling: Tradition and cultural renewal. Appendix A: Timeline of Makah Tradition. December 12, 2000.
Animal Protection Institute of America. (1996). Open Letter to the Makah Nation.
The Makah National website. Makah Whaling: Questions and Answers.
Native Americans and the Environment website. (1999). The Makah Whaling Conflict.
Scully, Matthew. (2002). Dominion. St. Martin's Press, New York. Pp. 172-176.
Breach Marine Protection. Makah Whaling.
Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. (2002). The Makah Whale Hunt: The Current Position of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society.
The Humane Society of the United States. (2003). Makah: The Tribe Who Would Be Whalers.
"Green, Roedy". (2003). Makah Whale Sacrifice.
Blow, R. (1998). The Great American Whale Hunt. Mother Jones Online. Sept/Oct 1998. (Reader responses, Nov/Dec 1998.)
Staff. (1998). Makah, protesters stay ashore on first day of whale hunting season. CNN.com. October 2, 1998.
Dunagan, C. (1998). Tribal views on whaling. The Sun. October 4, 1998. Bremerton, Washington.
_________. (1998). Paddling against the tide. The Sun. October 4, 1998. Bremerton, Washington.
Anderson, Peggy. (1998). Elder Opposed to Whaling Finds Resistance at Home, Reverence Outside. The Los Angeles Times. October 4, 1998. p. 4.
Dunagan, C. (1998). Bigger groups sit it out. The Sun. October 5, 1998. Bremerton, Washington.
_________. (1998). Activist: Hunt is 'empty gesture'. The Sun. October 5, 1998. Bremerton, Washington.
_________. (1998). The Hunters become the Hunted. The Sun. October 5, 1998. Bremerton, Washington.
Staff. (1998). New Evidence Shows Makah Tribe Planned Whaling for Profit. AnimalNews, Inc. October 27, 1998.
The Associated Press. (1998). Makah tribe's own critic flees reservation. The Sun. November 4, 1998. Bremerton, Washington.
Neiwert, D. (1998). The whaling that wasn't. Salon.com. November 16, 1998. (Reader responses, November 23, 1998.)
The Associated Press. (1998). African-America Coalition makes pilgrimage to support Makah Tribe. The Sun. December 20, 1998. Bremerton, Washington.
It was a whale of a hunt. The Wall Street Journal. May 25, 1999. (Reader response, June 2, 1999.)
"Kenny". (1999). In Defense of Whales. Earth First! Journal. Eostar 1999. (Note: EF! uses a festival-based calendar).
Johnson, W. and Aradanas, J. (1999). A Letter from Neah Bay. Earth First! Journal. Eostar 1999.
Staff. (1999). A Makah Elder Speaks: Interview with Alberta Thompson. Earth First! Journal. Eostar 1999.
Staff. (1999). Death in Neah Bay. Paws Magazine. May 17, 1999.
Anderson, P. (1999). Whale goes down. The Sun. May 18, 1999. Bremerton, Washington.
Goldberg, Jonah. (1999). Save the whales. National Review Online. May 20, 1999.
Johnson, Wayne. (1999). Harvest from the sea. The New York Times. May 21, 1999, p. A27.
Gardner, Dan. (1999). Animal activists are stirring up bloody water. The Ottawa Citizen. May 24, 1999.
Cousteau, Jean-Michel. (1999). Makah compromise--what compromise? Environmental News Network. May 24, 1999.
The Associated Press. (2000). Court harpoons Makah whaling. The Sun. June 10, 2000.
Yeagley, David. (2001). The only good Indian is a liberal Indian. FrontPage Magazine. February 7, 2001.
Dougherty, John. (2001). Resurrection. San Francisco Weekly. July 11, 2001. (Letters to the Editor: July 25, 2001 and August 23, 2001.)
Townson, John. (2002). Makah whale hunt belongs in the past. Times Colonist, Victoria, Canada. April 8, 2002, p. A7.
Mapes, Lynda V. (2002). Sea change for Makah whaling. The Seattle Times. April 15, 2002, p. A1.
Andersen, Peggy. (2002). Opponents want more study, concede they'll always oppose hunts. The Associated Press State & Local Wire. May 16, 2002.
Hopp, Thomas P. (2002). Don't deprive Makah of oil from whales. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer. May 18, 2002, p. B3.
Court stops Makah whale hunt. PR Newswire Association, Inc. December 20, 2002.
KOMO Staff & News Services. (2002). Court says no more Makah whale hunting. Komo-TV, December 20, 2002.
Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. (2002). Makah whale hunt defeated. December 20, 2002.
The Associated Press. (2002). Court orders Makah tribe not to whale. December 21, 2002.
Shukovsky, Paul. (2002). Court stops whale hunt. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer. December 21, 2002, p. A1.
Markarian, Michael, and Naomi A. Rose. (2003). Makah whale hunts illegal. The Seattle Times. February 12, 2003, p. B7.
Van Zile, Dexter. (2003). Washington: Conservation v. Animal Rights. TomPaine.com. February 14, 2003.
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