AnSlope Cruise #1 NATHANIEL B. PALMER 0302

McMurdo, Antarctica to Port Lyttelton, New Zealand; 25 February to 9 April 2003

Cruise Report

 

The Top

 

The Bottom

And in-between


 

I Introduction & Overview [A.Gordon, Chief Scientist]

 

[A] AnSlope, the Program: 

 

AnSlope's primary goal is to identify the principal physical processes that govern the transfer of shelf-modified dense water into intermediate and deep layers of the adjacent deep ocean.  At the same time, we seek to understand the compensatory poleward flow of waters from the oceanic regime. We identify the upper continental slope as the critical gateway for the exchange of shelf and deep ocean waters. Four specific objectives: [A] Determine the ASF mean structure and the principal scales of variability (spatial from ~1 km to ~100 km, and temporal from tidal to seasonal), and estimate the role of the Front on cross-slope exchanges and mixing of adjacent water masses; [B] Determine the influence of slope topography (canyons, proximity to a continental boundary, isobath divergence/convergence) on frontal location and outflow of dense Shelf Water; [C] Establish the role of frontal instabilities, benthic boundary layer transports, tides and other oscillatory processes on cross-slope advection and fluxes; and [D] Assess the effect of diapycnal mixing (shear-driven and double-diffusive), lateral mixing identified through intrusions, and nonlinearities in the equation of  state (thermobaricity and cabbeling) on the rate of descent and fate of outflowing, near-freezing Shelf Water.

 

AnSlope core elements are: moorings; CTD-O2/ADCP and CTD-mounted Microstructure Profiling System (CMiPS); CFC, oxy-18, tritium/helium tracers; and basic tidal modeling. The cruise activities of these elements are reported below:  

• CTD/LADCP/Tracer by Bruce Huber;

• Moorings by Alejandro Orsi;

• Microstructure by Laurence Padman. 

 

International Collaboration: The Italian CLIMA [Climate  Long–term  Interaction of the  Mass  balance of  Antarctica ] program in the Ross Sea provides a valuable international enhancement for the AnSlope observational component. Andrea Bergamasco, who joined the NBP0302 science team from the R/V Italica (CLIMA's ship) brought with him the Italica CTD data. These data provide a view of the western Ross Sea stratification conditions for January-February 2003, complementing the February-March 2003 data set of NBP 0302.

 

The German BRIOS-2 coupled ice-ocean GCM program is complementary to the US process-oriented modeling studies, and provides a test-bed for AnSlope-generated parameterizations of cross-front exchange.

 

The AnSlope field phase consists of three cruises within 12 to 14 months, with moorings in place throughout the period:

 

AnSlope 1:  February 25 to April 11 2003:  deploy the mooring array; thermohaline, oxygen and tracer [CFC, oxy-18, tritium/Helium] stratification, circulation and microstructure at beginning of mooring time series. In addition, water samples for nutrient analyses were collected at 60 selected stations to complement the measurements carried out in the Ross Sea in January and February 2003 by the Italian CLIMA project.

 

AnSlope 2: December 3, 2003 to January 16 2004: thermohaline, oxygen and tracer [CFC, oxy-18, tritium/Helium] stratification, circulation and microstructure during mooring time series;

 

AnSlope 3: February 29 to April 11, 2004: thermohaline and oxygen stratification, circulation at time of mooring recovery;

 

[B] AnSlope-1 Personnel:

 

Science Staff

1. Assmann, Karen                   AIW [BRIO-2]

2. MacKay, Chris                     ESR [Microstrucure]

3. Padman, Laurence                ESR [Microstrucure]

4. Zambianchi, Enrico               Universita Parthenope [CLIMA]

5. Bergamasco, Andrea            National Research Council [ISMAR; CLIMA]

6. Boda, Ken                           LDEO [CTD/LADCP]

7. Curchister, Enrique               LDEO [CTD/LADCP]

8. Dachille, Anthony                 LDEO [Tracer Chemistry]

9. Gordon, Arnold                    LDEO[Chief Scientist]

10. Huber, Bruce                      LDEO [CTD/LADCP]

11. Mathieu, Guy                      LDEO [Tracer Chemistry]

12. Mathieu, Sally                     LDEO [Tracer Chemistry]

13. Mele, Philip                        LDEO [CTD/LADCP]

14. Stanton, Basil                     LDEO [CTD/LADCP]

15. Stone, Erin                         LDEO [CTD/LADCP]

16. Brooksforce, Kathryn         OSU [Moorings]

17. Simpkins, John                   OSU [Moorings]

18. Bratcher, Amy                    TAMU [Moorings]

19. Orsi, Alejandro                   TAMU [Moorings]

 

AIW = Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar & Marine Research

CLIMA = Climate  Long–term  Interaction of the  Mass  balance of  Antarctica

ISMAR = Institute for Marine Science

LDEO = Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

ESR = Earth & Space Research

OSU = Oregon State University

TAMU = Texas A&M University

 

Raytheon Polar Services Company Staff:

1. Blackman, Sheldon               Electronics Technician

2. Coward, Annie                     Marine Technician

3. Felix, Bruce                          Electronics Technician

4. Gavahan, Kathleen               Information Technology

5. Huckins, Paul                       Information Technology

6. Huggins, Jen             Marine Technician

7. Klostermayer, Bryan USCG observer

8. Liben, Robbie                       Information Technology

9. McGuier, Chris                     Marine Technician

10. Newyear, Karl                   Marine Projects Coordinator

11. Tarrant, Steve                     Marine Technician

12. Tudor,  Laura                     Marine Science Technician

 

[C] What was Done:

 

The Chief Scientist's weekly SitReps with those of the Karl Newyear document the activities during the AnSlope-1 cruise. The sea ice cover was far more extensive than expected. However the mooring and CTD station activities were not hindered. Only the planned XBT survey was not done because of ice conditions.

 

The Track and Station array:

 

Figure I-1 Track, CTD stations [tracer activities noted: red symbol Tritium/Helium & Oxygen -18; + CFC], and moorings (see figure 1c; yellow is Central E-1 and B-1, which were recovered and redeployed as Central E-2 and B-2, shown by the blue symbol; the moorings which were not rotated during the cruise are shown in green). Table II- 1[Huber] lists the CTD stations, 206 in total and Table III-1 [Orsi] lists the mooring positions and composition. 

 

 

I-1a The full Station Array

 

I-1b the primary AnSlope area

 

I-1c Close up of mooring region, SW corner of AnSlope Coverage

 

 

I-1d Multibeam base of Close up of the SW corner of AnSlope Coverage

 

Research "Blocks": AnSlope-1 cruise activities may be segmented into research blocks, A to H (Figure I-2). A 'Station'  consists of CTD/LADCP; microstructure; water samples; a 'Section' is a sequence of stations, generally with spacing of 5 to 15 nm.

 

Figure I-2 Map of Research Blocks

[A] Enroute from McMurdo [stations 1- 18] :  The first station was in Terra Nova Bay, near the CLIMA current meter mooring L 74° 44.57 S; 164° 08.42 E. This was followed with a few stations along the west wall of mega-iceberg C-19 and a section across Drygalski Trough. These stations define the February 2003 characteristics of the dense shelf water within Drygalski, which is the prime source of slope plumes expected in the mooring area. A section [stations at 10 nm] was obtained along the trough axis, passing CLIMA mooring G, 73° 18.00 S; 171° 36.00 E, extending across the slope into the deep ocean, providing our first glimpse of the shelf/slope front and slope plume characteristics.  The front over the continental slope separates the relatively warm deep waters from the cold dense water over slope floor. Above 500 m the front conforms to the shelf-slope exchange processes.

 

[B] Moorings deployment [stations 19- 42]: Deployment of the 12 AnSlope moorings (including the pressure sensor near East-A) with regional CTD / LADCP stations. Tidal currents are a very noticeable part of the flow field, particularly over the shelf. Within the mooring area, over the slope and deeper ocean we find low salinity bottom water spreading westward across the mouth of the Drygalski trough, eventually over-riding saltier slope water derived from Drygalski. While there is general agreement of the stratification observed during AnSlope-1 with that found by Italica [January-February 2003] there is some variability: the Italica data reveals slightly greater extent of the saline slope water.

 

[C] Western boundary [stations 43-71]: Five closely spaced sections [5 nm] were obtained across the outer shelf to deep ocean within the western 'bend' and western boundary formed by the slope isobaths. These sections show the behavior of the shelf-slope front as the continental margins executes its abrupt turn. Above 500 m the modified warm deep water seems to just keep going west, spreading at least to with 15 nm of the shore. Pressed up against the slope and deeper adjacent ocean is strong northward flow of saline bottom water. Water mass characteristics and the bottom tracked LADCP data indicate that there are significant downslope components of salty shelf water from Drygalski, prompting use of the descriptive word 'Plume'. The northern cross slope section [stations 67-72] in this grouping defines the characteristics of the Ross Sea saline bottom water as they exit their formation site.

 

[D] Northern [D1] and Eastern [D2] boundary sections [stations 72-97]: The deep water side of the AnSlope survey region is enclosed by a northern (72-86; nominally along 72°S) and an eastern (87-97; along 175°E) boundary sections. These sections define the open ocean boundary condition for the AnSlope area. The northern section crosses the Iselin Bank near 178°E. The northward protrusion of Iselin Bank forms a major perturbation to the otherwise SE-NW trending Ross Sea slope. The eastern slope of the Bank is characterized by northward flowing water derived from Pennell Trough shelf water. The top of the Bank is covered with outer shelf waters derived from Pennell region. The front for the most part follows the contours of Iselin Bank, but the slope water along the western flank is not as cold as observed to the east, indicating that the Pennell formed bottom water passes into the southeast Pacific Basin rather then curl their way to the western Ross margin.

 

[E] Pennell Trough [stations 98-110]:  Pennell Trough holds the potential source water for local slope plumes, both ice shelf water and high salinity shelf water. The latter being similar to that within Drygalski, but here at its eastern extend it forms a thinner benthic layer. Within Pennell Trough there are two CLIMA moorings:  H-1 75°57.461'S; 177°38.709'W  632-m, and H-2 75°09.936'S; 176°14.603'W   738-m. We took a station at H-2, but ice was too heavy to spare the fuel to reach H-1. At the shelf break, at H-2, we found vigorous mixing of the shelf and modified warm deep waters, with very high offshore speeds, feeding the northward flowing slope waters observed along the eastern slope of Iselin Bank.

 

[F] Continental slope crossings [stations 111-144]: From Pennell Trough to the mooring area we crisscrossed the continental slope and associated front 8 times (including the two crossings at Pennell and the 175W section) with a station spacing of about 5 nm. These sections examine the connectivity between the Pennell Trough frontal and plume characteristics with those at the western mooring area. The southern root of Iselin Bank was transversed near 73.5S, which with the northern boundary section define the extent of the Bank's disturbance to the margin stratification/circulation. There appears to be both low and high salinity benthic water derived from Joides Basin along the downstream slope. 

 

[G] Recovery/redeployment of two moorings [stations 145-186]: Central E-1 and Central B-1 moorings were recovered and re-deployed as Central E-2 and B-2. E-1 and B-1 were not quite in the desired placement, and E-1 was too shallow exposing it to iceberg impact. The three week mooring records provide a tantalizing hint of things to come when we recover the full year's data. Sections were obtained at close spacing (<5nm at the mooring sites) along the three mooring sections to enable current meter referenced geostrophic calculations. The sections along the eastern and western mooring lines were extended off shore to deeper waters. Repeated lowering (yo-yo station) of the CTD for a period of 25 hours were performed at the ADCP mooring site, revealing very vigorous, time varying conditions.

 

[H] Balleny Trough [stations 187-206]: The bottom water formed along the western margin of the Ross Sea exits the region within the passage between the Balleny Islands and Antarctica. We know this mainly from data west of 150°E. There are a few, but not many stations in the Balleny Passage. In order to trace the movement and mixing of the Ross Sea water westward through this passage, and evaluate the impact of possible local sources of dense deep/bottom water, we ended the cruise with a series of CTD stations at WOCE spacing [30 nm] through the Balleny Passage. The time for these stations came from the cancelled XBT survey of the Ross Sea margin.

 

Other Activities:

 

Ice Observations: Fulfilling a request from Steve Ackley, chairman of the SCAR-GloChAnt ASPeCT program, ice observations were also carried out during the cruise, using the Aspect protocols and software developed at CRC and Australian Antarctic Division by Anthony Worby (see Antarctic CRC Research Report 14, 1999). After a few days of training, a routine of hourly observations was established, under the coordination of Enrico Zambianchi, member of the ASPeCT SSG, and Karl Newyear, involving several volunteer watch standers.

 

Multibeam: Kathleen Gavahan reports that though the ice was extensive for most of the cruise we were able to add to the regional coverage.  We have filled a few data "holes" in the northwestern mooring area, where we have spend most of the time on this cruise.  We had pretty good coverage there already from NBP0209.  On our excursion to the Pennell area, we added to the definition of the shelf break. However, because of the ice, the quality of data has been patchy on this cruise. Ping editing volunteers were very active during the cruise. Erin Stone proved to be the most persistent of the ping editors.

 

Multibeam is an indispensable aid in siting moorings and in understanding the sea floor morphology control of the circulation and mixing processes.

 

 

[D] Acknowledgements & comments:

 

It's been a great cruise! The NBP is a fantastic ship, staffed with a fine group of capable and congenial people, across the whole spectrum. We have achieved the objectives of AnSlope cruise 1 under unexpected difficult ice conditions: the moorings have been placed to best achieve the AnSlope objectives; we have a detailed view of the stratification and circulation along the margins of the Ross Sea.  We succeeded because of the expert ship handling, as critical for the mooring operations and for weaving and breaking our way through the endless ice. The solid support provide by the Raytheon team, in keeping the equipment and computer network in tip-top shape allowed us to smoothly carry out the cruise activities. The dedicated of group of scientist insured the collection of quality data and in making maximum use of the available facilities.  All of individuals in the above mentioned groups deserved commendation. My special appreciation goes to Captain Joe Borkowski III who has earned my highest respect.

 

Adding to the science and the company was the natural beauty of the environment. The scenery was spectacular, particularly as the sunrise lit up the snow covered mountains to the west of the mooring area and the icebergs of varied sizes and shapes under flattering lighting conditions. There were many penguin, seal and whale sightings. Food is great, with variety to suit nearly every taste, prepared by a knowledgeable staff. [Though 24 hour availability of better coffee would be good; timely coffee brewed by the Raytheon MT was appreciated (just as I typed out this sentence).]

 

E-mail policy: the free daily 25K compressed limit is reasonable and the extra cost for additional exchange is not prohibitive to further meaningful use of e-mail. The chief scientist, who often is faced with many additional responsibilities at the home institution and SitReps, should be advised to request in the SIP a free limit of 50K compressed per day.


 

II CTD/LADCP/Tracer Chemistry [Bruce A. Huber]:

 

CTD/LADCP/Tracer

 

Profiles of temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen were obtained using equipment provided by RPSC.  The basic package consisted of a Sea-bird Electronics SBE911+ CTD system fitted with 2 sets of ducted conductivity-temperature sensors, dual pumps, and a single SBE 43 dissolved oxygen sensor.  The sensor suite was mounted vertically on a flat mounting surface just inboard of the lower frame supports.  The sensor pairs generally agreed to within 0.001 for both T and C throughout the cruise, and can be used interchangeably.   One-second GPS data from the vessel’s Ashtech GPS was merged with the CTD data stream and recorded at every CTD scan.   Data were acquired using  a PC running Windows 98 and Sea-Bird’s Seasave for Windows software.  Raw data was copied over the network to a separate drive immediately after the station.  Preliminary post-processing was carried out using batch files and scripts prepared by RPSC and modified by LDEO to provide a variety of CTD products to the AnSlope science party.  The processed data was copied to a network disk drive and was generally available within 10 minutes after the conclusion of a station.

All profiles were planned to reach within 10 m of the bottom.  Approach to the bottom was guided by a 12 kHz pinger (OSI ) mounted on the frame and an SBE bottom contact switch fitted with a 10 m lanyard and weight.  The pinger generally worked well, but required service twice during the cruise to replace the batteries.  The bottom contact switch gave sporadic results due to large drifts and bottom currents until station 40, when the original ¼” line and set of large shackles as weights were replaced with a much thinner nylon string and single, 5/8” shackle as weight.  From this point on, the bottom contact was for the most part reliable.

Water samples were collected using a 24-position SBE ­­32 Carousel sampler with 10 liter water sample bottles of the SIO Bullister design, modified to include a second, larger-bore valve adjacent to the standard sampling valve on the body of the bottle.  Water was collected for on-board analysis of salinity, dissolved oxygen, and CFCs.   Salinity and oxygen analyses are primarily for standardizing the CTD conductivity and oxygen sensors.  Additional samples were collected for later analysis at LDEO of helium, tritium, oxygen-18.  Samples for later analysis of nutrients in Italy were collected and frozen at -80ºC.

The water sampling system was generally trouble-free, with a few noteworthy exceptions:

-                          the sample valves on most of the bottles are very difficult to operate.  The RPSC marine technicians kept a ready supply of spares to install when a valve became troublesome, but more often than not, this was a temporary fix.  This issue should be investigated further by RPSC to determine if there is a flaw in the design or manufacture of the valve assemblies which promotes sticking.

-                          The latch assembly began to stick on station 100.  The assembly was replaced with a spare, but the spare proved to be worse than the original.  The original was carefully rinsed and replaced, and further sticking was only occasionally a problem.

-                          The casousel pylon electronics assembly failed on station 193.  A spare was installed from the backup CTD package.

Profiles of water velocity were obtained with the LDEO Lowered Acoustic Doppler Profiler system (LADCP).  The LADCP underwater system comprises two RDI Workhorse WH300 ADCPs and an LDEO battery/communications package.  The two ADCP heads (sn 150 and 149) are operated in master-slave configuration, with the down-looking head serving as master (sn  150).  Ping rate was nominally 1.5 seconds, with a bin length of 10 m.  Nominal range for each head was typically 100 m.   The data were processed using the LDEO LADCP software version 7b.  A one-second time series of the preliminary CTD data with integrated GPS navigation was used during the LADCP processing, accessed via the network immediately after each CTD station.  The CTD, GPS and ADCP bottom track data are utilized by the processing software to produce a velocity profile with 20 m vertical resolution, with velocity errors of typically 0.05 m/s .   A separate, more detailed  report on LADCP operations will be available after the cruise.  Of note is the effect of the bottom contact lanyard on quality of the LADCP data – the ¼” lanyard used for the first 39 stations caused data dropouts in the first down-looking bin.  It is important to use a thin line and small weight to avoid contaminating the ADCP data. 

 

Oxygen titration

An SBE 43 dissolved oxygen sensor was connected to the primary CTD sensor
array.  There was no discernable sensor drift over the time of the cruise as determined by inter comparison between station pairs at the same location during the beginning and the end of the cruise.  A preliminary correction was applied based on temperature, yielding close approximation to rosette bottle data. 1,400 oxygen samples were collected for Winkler titration.  An amperometric titrator, designed by Dr. C. Langdon, was used to titrate whole bottle samples.  The first eight stations were titrated using the RPS titrator,
after which it was swapped out for the PO titrator due to slow titration speed and the lack of software to change the speed.  Except for minor problems, the titrations ran smoothly.

 

Salinity determination

Water sample salinity was determined using the RPSC Guildline Autosal 8400B laboratory salinometer(number 59-213) , standardized with batch P141 standard water from OSIL.  Data from the autosal was captured by computer using an interface and software constructed at Scripps Oceanographic Inst.  The salinometer is housed in a temperature-controlled enclosure constructed in the Bio Lab.  The room temperature at the level of the salinometer is reasonably well controlled, but we found early on that there was a nearly 5 degree gradient between the deck and the autosal level.  Samples to be run are stored on the deck, and so were not equilibrating to near the salinometer bath temperature, causing some noisy runs.  We installed a circulating fan in the autosal room, minimizing the floor-to-ceiling temperature gradient. In order to speed sample processing, sample crates were placed in the aft dry lab sink immediately after drawing the samples, and the crates filled with tap water.  Water was changed 2 to 3 times over the next few hours, and the resultant water bath temperature checked with a thermocouple probe provided by RPSC.  This procedure stabilized the sample temperatures to around 20ºC within 6 hours and greatly improved the stability of the runs.  Overall the system works very well.  The combination of SIO interface and software, temperature stability, and excellent maintenance of the autosal yielded very low drift rates, and good repeatability of  replicate samples.   The bulk of the samples were drawn and run by K. Assmann and E. Curchitser.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Station Summary

 

Table II-1 provides summary information for the 206 CTD/LADCP/Tracer stations occupied during NBP03-02.   Bottom depths at the start of the CTD are in meters, as indicated by the multibeam center channel display. These depths are corrected for local sound velocity, profiles for which were determined by K. Gavahan from CTD data collected during the cruise. 

 

 

Latitude S

Longitude

 

 

 

 

 

Water Samples

 

CTD

Deg

Min

Deg

Min

 

Date m/d/y

Time (z)

Depth (m)

Max Pres

Dist off bot.

He

CFC

Ox

Trit

O18

Sal

Nut*

Notes

1

74

59.976

166

01.056

E

02/25/03

21:52

1035

990

10

11

22

23

11

11

22

 

 

2

74

30.096

174

45.468

E

02/26/03

20:07

502

493

10

 

14

12

 

 

12

 

 

3

74

00.084

175

09.906

E

02/27/03

00:17

586

580

8

13

14

14

13

13

14

 

Tr sample only half full

4

73

30.474

175

11.826

E

02/27/03

04:33

404

397

10

 

 

11

 

 

11

 

 

5

72

59.982

175

00.876

E

02/27/03

10:30

354

351

10

 

11

10

 

 

10

 

bottle 2 leaked from bottom endcap-loose o-ring

6

72

54.942

174

25.662

E

02/27/03

13:51

365

365

10

 

10

9

 

 

6

 

 

7

72

49.596

173

52.398

E

02/27/03

17:32

401

392

10

 

12

10

 

 

6

 

ladcp up-head data only

8

72

44.652

173

16.752

E

02/27/03

20:22

504

501

8

 

 

12

 

 

6

 

 

9

72

39.810

172

41.460

E

02/27/03

23:19

529

525

8

12

13

12

12

12

12

 

bottles 1,2 no trip-lanyards tangled

10

72

34.884

172

07.230

E

02/28/03

01:52

553

552

10

 

 

12

 

 

6

 

 

11

72

30.108

171

33.618

E

02/28/03

04:18

361

348

10

 

 

6

6

 

6

 

 

12

72

30.132

172

34.908

E

02/28/03

08:52

543

536

8

 

 

6

 

 

6

 

bottle 9 no trip

13

72

20.352

172

49.590

E

02/28/03

12:39

527

526

7

12

12

12

12

12

12

 

 

14

72

10.038

173

04.590

E

02/28/03

16:03

512

512

10

 

 

12

 

 

6

 

 

15

72

00.042

173

17.946

E

02/28/03

18:41

1053

1061

10

19

20

19

19

19

19

 

bottles 18,19 air vent leak

16

71

50.052

173

32.346

E

02/28/03

21:32

1953

1950

20

 

 

12

 

 

12

 

 

17

71

40.158

173

45.750

E

03/01/03

01:12

1967

1980

10

 

 

12

 

 

12

 

 

18

71

30.000

174

00.072

E

03/01/03

04:37

2132

2137

10

24

25

24

23

23

24

 

no Tr or 18-O sample niskin 23(smpl 103)

19

72

08.022

172

58.062

E

03/02/03

07:50

513

505

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

72

08.880

172

50.028

E

03/02/03

09:26

506

499

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21

72

09.942

172

45.150

E

03/02/03

10:59

507

505

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22

72

07.914

172

55.656

E

03/03/03

08:48

499

496

12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23

72

07.602

172

49.872

E

03/03/03

09:58

508

490

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24

72

07.872

172

44.952

E

03/03/03

11:14

502

497

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

72

08.370

172

42.012

E

03/03/03

12:21

504

497

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26

71

56.250

172

37.308

E

03/04/03

02:49

1674

1716

10

22

23

24

22

22

24

 

 

27

72

02.232

172

43.896

E

03/04/03

06:20

521

518

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28

72

03.606

172

43.212

E

03/04/03

07:57

498

496

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29

72

02.190

172

28.452

E

03/04/03

09:59

477

465

10

13

15

13

13

13

13

 

 

30

71

57.144

172

27.594

E

03/04/03

12:01

1592

1598

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31

71

52.086

172

12.954

E

03/04/03

17:15

1078

790

 

 

16

15

 

 

24

 

drifted into shallower water during cast.

Bottle 18 lanyard caught in top endcap

32

71

50.028

172

37.200

E

03/05/03

19:32

1759

1695

10

 

22

21

 

 

24

2

air vent o-ring unseated bottle 9

33

71

58.938

172

47.496

E

03/05/03

22:44

888

893

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34

72

00.852

172

48.612

E

03/06/03

03:11

560

602

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35

71

57.990

173

00.054

E

03/06/03

06:33

1118

1125

9

 

21

24

 

20

20

 

18-O without Tr/He

36

72

03.780

172

56.154

E

03/06/03

08:56

532

 

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

37

71

58.584

172

35.298

E

03/06/03

10:53

990

1199

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

biota in sensor plumbing on ut

38

71

58.980

172

36.798

E

03/06/03

12:46

852

895

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

39

71

59.244

172

38.790

E

03/06/03

14:26

833

824

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40

71

59.004

172

36.570

E

03/06/03

16:07

854

872

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bottom contact lanyard and weight replaced prior to cast

41

71

59.082

172

33.600

E

03/06/03

17:30

904

890

 

 

20

19

 

 

20

4

 

42

72

02.508

172

37.506

E

03/06/03

21:56

504

496

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

halted on dt at 120m due to ice

43

72

02.754

172

36.828

E

03/06/03

22:47

508

492

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

at same site as 42

44

71

55.212

172

36.528

E

03/07/03

01:13

1764

1764

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

45

71

51.528

172

36.246

E

03/07/03

03:32

1759

1765

10

21

22

21

21

21

21

5

 

46

71

53.490

172

27.252

E

03/07/03

06:14

1613

1609

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

47

71

55.776

172

18.360

E

03/07/03

08:10

1534

1539

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

48

71

57.618

172

09.180

E

03/07/03

10:03

953

965

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

49

71

59.868

171

59.988

E

03/07/03

11:55

426

424

8

 

13

12

 

 

12

4

 

50

71

50.832

171

59.064

E

03/07/03

14:16

639

656

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

51

71

50.964

171

50.958

E

03/07/03

15:36

493

486

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

52

71

50.994

171

42.186

E

03/07/03

17:12

423

393

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

53

71

50.844

172

07.398

E

03/07/03

19:14

753

737

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

54

71

50.886

172

14.700

E

03/07/03

20:26

1122

1135

8

 

21

20

 

 

20

3

 

55

71

50.940

172

22.476

E

03/07/03

22:35

1636

1653

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

56

71

50.904

172

29.172

E

03/08/03

00:24

1573

1577

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

57

71

50.922

172

36.576

E

03/08/03

02:18

1685

1687

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

58

71

46.692

172

36.510

E

03/08/03

04:13

1668

1696

10

 

22

21

 

 

21

 

ros 11 leaked

59

71

44.220

172

36.342

E

03/08/03

06:50

1679

1673

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

60

71

42.534

172

37.242

E

03/08/03

08:44

1639

1643

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

61

71

40.830

172

37.050

E

03/08/03

10:33

1561

1565

10

 

23

22

 

 

22

4

 

62

71

40.722

172

24.768

E

03/08/03

13:22

1708

1716

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

63

71

40.212

172

12.000

E

03/08/03

15:41

1350

1352

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

64

71

39.402

172

00.138

E

03/08/03

17:41

625

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cast aborted due to false bottom contact alarm

65

71

38.844

171

59.508

E

03/08/03

18:07

622

610

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

66

71

40.542

171

50.424

E

03/08/03

19:30

451

476

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

stopped cast on ut due to ice at 150 and 133 m

67

71

39.942

171

41.886

E

03/08/03

20:41

455

451

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

68

71

34.506

172

03.888

E

03/08/03

22:42

673

670

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

69

71

28.860

172

26.802

E

03/09/03

01:02

1853

1889

10

22

23

22

22

22

24

 

 

70

71

23.214

172

50.844

E

03/09/03

04:24

2154

2170

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

71

71

17.490

173

12.462

E

03/09/03

07:48

2068

2086

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

72

71

12.096

173

35.244

E

03/09/03

11:16

2230

2243

8

 

24

24

 

 

24

2

 

73

71

18.702

174

29.784

E

03/09/03

16:15

2188

2168

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

74

71

25.878

175

23.796

E

03/09/03

21:09

2210

2222

8

 

10

11

 

 

12

6

 

75

71

32.598

176

18.276

E

06/24/00

02:22

2034

2043

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

76

71

39.210

177

11.700

E

03/10/03

07:00

954

954

10

 

21

12

 

 

12

 

 

77

71

46.284

178

05.634

E

03/10/03

11:30

1848

1857

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

78

71

52.860

179

00.024

E

03/10/03

15:43

2256

2235

8

24

25

24

24

24

24

5

 

79

71

59.460

179

54.660

E

03/10/03

20:32

2223

2244

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

80

72

06.084

179

12.432

W

03/11/03

01:19

1314

1324

7

 

20

12

 

 

12

5

 

81

72

12.816

178

17.916

W

03/11/03

05:29

742

732

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

82

72

19.830

177

23.808

W

03/11/03

09:13

574

568

8

14

14

14

14

14

14

4

 

83

72

26.406

176

30.348

W

03/11/03

14:11

708

715

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

84

72

33.438

175

37.326

W

03/11/03

18:41

1099

1084

8

 

20

20

 

 

24

4

 

85

72

39.036

174

55.782

W

03/11/03

23:35

1845

270

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cast aborted - ctd problems

86

72

39.192

174

57.018

W

03/12/03

00:43

1822

1835

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ctd data spikes

87

72

59.556