General Summary of the Soviet Underground Nuclear Test (UNT) program

A short statistical description with special reference to the UNTs at Semipalatinsk (STS).

Common abbreviations used throughout this electronic supplement:
NT nuclear test
UNT underground nuclear test
UNE underground nuclear explosion
PNE Peaceful Nuclear Explosion
STS Semipalatinsk Test Site
NZTS Novaya Zemlya Test Site
AWE (The British) Atomic Weapons Establishment


As a main source of information we use the official Russian publication "USSR Nuclear Tests: general characteristics, goals and organization of nuclear tests in the USSR", Moscow, 1997.

This publication, which we cite as [1], does not contains information about origin time, magnitude and coordinates of explosions. Yields of UNTs are shown only for all PNEs and 27 UNTs from STS. For the rest of the events, only a yield range is indicated.

The official Russian list [1] contains the following information:
  1. Identification number of the test (from #1 to #715)
  2. Date (in Moscow time)
  3. Name of the test site (STS, NZTS and areas of PNE)
  4. Identification number of the tunnel (for Degelen) and the shaft (for Balapan and Murzhik)
  5. The general purpose of each UNT.
  6. Yield in kt. For UNTs with unannounced yield, a yield range is reported: less than 0.001 kt; 0,001 - 20 kt; 20-150 kt; 150-1,500 kt and 1,500-15,000 kt
  7. Comments.

Table of Contents of this General Summary

Part 1. General statistics of Soviet nuclear tests
1.1. Some definitions of UNTs, as given in [1].
1.2. The total number of nuclear explosions in different media.
1.3. Underground nuclear explosions. Annual number, subarea statistics, and distribution by purpose. Number of UNTs carried out in tunnels and shafts.
1.4. Total numbers of nuclear explosions (tests) in different sites.
1.5. PNE statistics.
Part 2. UNTs with several sub-explosions. Statistics of single and salvo explosions.
2.1. Chronology of multiple-explosion UNTs in USSR.
2.2. Statistics of single and salvo UNTs at STS.
2.3. Statistics of single and salvo UNTs at Novaya Zemlya TS
2.4. Single and multiple-explosion PNE.
2.5. Total numbers of tests and sub-explosions for UNTs from different test sites of the USSR.
2.6. Summary of nuclear tests and sub-explosion numbers for UNTs in different media (for all test sites together).
Part 3. Pairs of UNTs at STS which were exploded simultaneously

Part 4. Small UNTs at STS, which were not well-documented in the open literature
4.1. The list of UNTs at STS which were not detected by western seismographic networks and reported in the open literature with well-documented parameters.
4.2. Statistics of undetected UNTs.
4.3. Subareas of undetected UNTs.
Part 5. UNTs at STS with announced yield.

Part 6. Total annual energy release of UNTs at STS

Part 7. False alarms. List of seismic events which in some publications were wrongly asssumed to be Soviet UNTs.

References


Part 1. General Statistics of Soviet Nuclear Tests


Here we give a statistical summary of Soviet nuclear explosions carried out during 1949-1990 in different media and test sites, based on the data from official publication [1].

1.1. Some definitions of UNTs, as given in [1]

  1. UNT (test) - one or more UNEs (sub-explosions). All sub-explosions have to be located within a circle of 2 km diameter and have to be exploded with time interval less than 0.1 sec.
  2. PNE salvo - all sub-explosions located within 40 km and exploded within time interval less than 5 sec.
  3. The official list does not include experiments with Y less 0.001 kt, excluding experiments with unforeseen results and the study of emergencies.

1.2. Total number of Soviet nuclear explosions (tests) in different media

Environment Number Location
Ground surface 32 STS - 30; Aralsk - 1; NZ - 1.
In the atmosphere 177 STS - 86; NZ-85; Totsk-1, KY-5.
High altitude and space 5 KY-5 (Kapustin Yar TS)
Underwater 3 NZ-3
Water surface 2 NZ-2
Underground NTs 496 STS-340; NZ-39; Azgir-17;
other places of USSR -100 PNE.

The total number of Soviet NTs is 715.


1.3. UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR TESTS

The total number of Soviet UNTs is 496, including 5 tests that made craters.

Here we give details on the annual number at STS, subarea statistics, distribution by purpose, and the number of UNTs made in tunnels and shafts.
a. Annual number of UNTs at STS

1961 - 1; 1962 - 1; 1963 - 0; 1964 - 7; 1965 - 12;
1966 - 14; 1967 - 15; 1968 - 14; 1969 - 14; 1970 - 12;
1971 - 15; 1972 - 14; 1973 - 9; 1974 - 15; 1975 - 12;
1976 - 16; 1977 - 15; 1978 - 20; 1979 - 20; 1980 - 18;
1981 - 15; 1982 - 10; 1983 - 14; 1984 - 14; 1985 - 8;
1986 - 0; 1987 - 16; 1988 - 12; 1989 - 7; 1990 - 0.




b. Test Site statistics for UNTs:
1. STS 340, including:
  1. Degelen 209
  2. Balapan 105 (synonym: Shagan)
  3. Murzhik 26 (synonyms: Murzhik, Sary-Uzen, Konustyan)
2. Novaya Zemlya TS 39, including :
  1. North Test Site 35
  2. South Test Site 4
3. Azgir 17
4. Other places 100

c. UNTs in tunnels and shafts:
In Degelen and the Northern site of NZTS, explosions were carried out in tunnels.
In Balapan, Murzhik and the Southern site of the NZTS, explosions were carried out in shafts.
Almost all PNEs were carried out in shafts. Two PNEs were carried out in tunnels (near Murmansk) and one PNE (in Donbass) was in a mine. Official statistics include the latter PNE with the tunnel group, for a total of three in tunnels.
Total number of UNEs made in tunnels : 209 + 35 + 3 = 247.
Total number of explosions made in shafts: 105 + 26 + 4 + 114 = 249.

d. UNTs at STS, listed by purpose:
230 - NWI - Nuclear Weapon Improvement.
15 - SAM - Studies of Accidental Modes and emergencies.
34 - SIE - Studies of Injurious Effects and impact.
23 - FMS - Fundamental and Methodological Studies.
7 - IE - Industrial Explosions (PNE).
31 - TIC - verification of industrial charges for production PNE.
340 Total

1.4. Total amount of all types of NTs at the different sites

a. STS 456 UNTs
including 340 UNTs, 30 surface NEs, and 86 atmospheric NEs.
b. NOVAYA ZEMLYA TS 130 NEs
including: UNTs - 39, Surface-1; Air-85; Water-2; Underwater-3.
c. KAPUSTIN YAR TS 10 NEs
including 5 high-altitude and 5 in air.
d. AZGIR 17 UNTs.
e. OTHER places 102
(Totsk 1, Aralsk 1, 100 PNE in many places).
TOTAL - 715


1.5. Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE)

Under the terms of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty and the Peaceful Nucelar Explosions Treaty, a PNE is a nuclear explosion carried out at a location other than a declared nuclear weapons test site. However, some nuclear explosions carried out at STS prior to the TTBT was negotiated were for enginnering purposes of various types, rather than for the weapons program, and so these explosions are sometimes included in PNE lists. We refer to these above in 1.4d as Insudrial Explosions, and below in quotes as "PNE" events.

The official list of PNE consists of 124 tests with 135 sub-explosions.
a. It includes:
PNE in Azgir region 17
"PNE" in STS 7
Total 124
b. The following UNTs carried out at STS were "PNE" :
DateY, kt
1965 Jan 15 140
1965 Oct 14 1.1
1968 Oct 21 0.24
1968 Nov 12 3 x 0.24
1971 Apr 9 0.23
1974 Dec 7 1.7
1974 Dec 16 3.8
c. From Sep 1971 till Aug 1988, 39 PNEs were made for Deep Seismic Sounding in many places of USSR.
The yields were between 2.3 and 23 kt.
Average depth was 500-700 m (from 400 up to 1000m)

Part 2. UN Tests with several sub-explosions

Here we give statistics of single and salvo explosions.

2.1. Chronology of multi-explosion UNTs in USSR

Date Event description
1966 Mar 30 First Soviet salvo PNE in two shafts was made in Bashkiria.
1966 Dec 3 First salvo UNT in a single tunnel was made at STS.
1967 Oct 21 First salvo explosion in two tunnels was made at STS.
1968 Jul 11 First salvo explosion (test) of three charges in single tunnel was made at Novaya Zemlya TS.
1972 Dec 10 First salvo explosion in two tunnels was made at STS.
1975 Aug 23 Salvo explosion with maximum number of sub-explosions (eight!) was made at NZTS.
1975 Oct 18 First salvo explosion in a single shaft was made at NZTS.
1976 Jul 12 First salvo explosion in a single shaft was made at STS.
1978 Jul 28 Salvo explosion at STS with maximum number of sub-explosions (five).

2.2. Statistics of multiple-explosion tests at STS

During 1961- 1965 only single tests were carried out.
In 1966-1976 18 double explosions tests and 6 triple ones were carried out.
In 1977-1989 there were 58 double tests, 23 triple tests, 4 tests with four sub-explosions and one test with five sub-explosions.

Total number of tests at STS with different number of sub-explosions:
Test type Number of tests Number of sub-explosions
Single explosion tests 230 230
Double sub-explosions tests 76 152
Triple sub-explosions tests 29 87
Four sub-explosions tests 4 16
Five sub-explosions tests 1 5
Total 340 490


About 68% of tests at STS were single explosions, and 32% were multiple-explosion events with an average of 2.3 sub-explosions per test.

2.3. Statistics of multiple-explosion UNTs at Novaya Zemlya TS

Statistics of tests with different number of sub-explosions :
Test type Number of tests Number of sub-explosions
Single explosion tests 11 11
Double sub-explosions tests 3 6
Triple sub-explosions tests 5 15
Four sub-explosions tests 10 40
Five sub-explosions tests 5 25
Six sub-explosions) tests 1 6
Seven sub-explosions tests 2 14
Eight sub-explosions tests 2 16
Total 39 133


Eleven UNTs at NZTS were single events.
28 UNTs at NZTS were multi-explosions tests, with about 4.4 sub-explosions per test.

2.4. Single and salvo (multiple-explosion) PNE

A total of 117 PNE were carried out in the USSR (not including 7 PNEs at STS), among them six explosions with two or more separate sub-explosions:
Date Y, kt Region Comments
1965 Mar 3 2.3 + 2.3 Bashkiria Made in two shafts
1971 Mar 23 15 + 15 + 15 Perm Made in three shafts: Cratering PNE
1978 Oct 17 18 + 56 Azgir Made in the same shaft
1979 Jan 17 12 + 56 Azgir Made in the same shaft
1979 Jul 14 ? + ? + ? = 21 Azgir Made in the same shaft
1979 Oct 24 ? + ? = 33 Azgir Made in the same shaft

2.5. Total number of tests and sub-explosions for UNTs from different test sites of the USSR

Test type Numbers of tests at: Number of sub-explosions
STS NZTS PNE All locations
Single 230 11 111 352 352
Double 76 3 4 83 166
Triple 29 5 2 36 108
Four 4 10 - 14 56
Five 1 5 - 6 30
Six - 1 - 1 6
Seven - 2 - 2 14
Eight - 2 - 2 16
Total 340 39 117 496 748

2.6. Summary of nuclear tests and sub-explosions numbers for NTs in different media (all test sites)

Environment Number of tests Number of sub-explosions
Underground 496 748
Other environments 219 219
Total 715 967

Part 3. Pairs of UNTs at STS which were exploded simultaneously

17 pairs of UNTs at STS were exploded almost simultaneously, or within a short time interval, less than 10 sec.
Only in five cases were both explosions detected by western seismologists.
For eleven pairs, only one test was observed.
For one pair, neither test was detected. Further details are given in the following Table, which uses explosion numbers assigned in the Russian official publication [1].

Pairs of UNTs from STS which were exploded simultaneously.

## Date Subarea Detected test mb Undetected test Comment
1. 321 & 322 1970 Jun 28 Both Degelen #321 5.7 #322
2. 325 & 326 1970 Sep 6 Both Degelen #326 5.4 #325
3. 333 & 334 1971 Mar 22 Both Degelen #333 5.7 #334
4. 353 & 354 1971 Dec 30 Both Degelen #354 5.7 #353
5. 360 & 361 1972 Jul 7 Both Degelen #360 5.4 #361
6. 376 & 377 1972 Dec 10 Degelen #376 5.6 -
Balapan #377 6.0 - Time interval - 10.0 sec
7. 417 & 418 1975 Feb 20 Both Degelen #417 5.7 #418
8. 454 & 455 1976 Dec 7 Both Balapan #454 5.9 #455
9. 457 & 458 1977 Mar 29 Degelen #457 5.4
Murzhik - - #458
10. 473 & 474 1977 Oct 29 Degelen #473 5.6
Balapan #474 5.6 Time interval - 4.9 sec
11. 479 & 480 1977 Dec 26 Both Degelen #479 4.9 #480
12. 493 & 494 1978 Aug 29 Degelen #493 5.2 -
Balapan #494 5.9 - Time interval - 8.8 sec
13. 506 & 507 1978 Nov 29 Degelen #506 5.3 -
Balapan #507 6.0 - Time interval - 4.8 sec
14. 524 & 525 1979 Jul 18 Murzhik #524 5.2 -
Degelen - - #525
15. 561 & 562 1980 Dec 5 Both Degelen. ##561 & 562 Neither was observed.
16. 629 & 630 1983 Nov 29 Both Degelen #629 5.4 #630
17. 671 & 672 1987 Apr 3 Balapan #671 6.0 -
Degelen - - #672


Note that for UNT #396 (1974 Jan 30) Western agencies detected two sub-explosions with time difference 4.4 sec and magnitudes 4.9 and 5.4. So it might appear that this would be a pair of tests to meet the TTBT definition of a UNT. Nevertheless in official Russian publication these events are listed as one test.



Part 4. WEAK UNTs AT STS which were not well-documented in the open literature

4.1. The list of UNTs from STS which were not detected by western seismographic networks and reported in the open literature with well-documented location

There are 61 of these events, as follows:
N # in official Russian list Date Described only in [9] Y, kt Subarea Comment
1 #224 1964 Jun 6 Yes less than 20 Deg
2 #226 1964 Aug 18 Yes less than 20 Deg
3 #228 1964 Sep 30 Yes less than 20 Deg
4 #232 1965 Feb 4 Yes less than 20 Deg
5 #234 1965 Mar 27 Yes less than 20 Deg
6 #259 1966 Oct 29 Yes less than 20 Deg
7 #260 1966 Nov 19 Yes less than 20 Deg
8 #271 1967 Sep 2 Yes less than 20 Deg
9 #283 1968 May 23 No less than 0.001 Deg
10 #292 1968 Oct 29 Yes less than 20 Deg
11 #298 1969 Apr 4 Yes less than 20 Deg
12 #299 1969 Apr 13 Yes less than 20 Deg
13 #310 1969 Oct 30 No less than 20 Deg
14 #311 1969 Nov 27 Yes less than 20 Deg
15 #317 1970 Feb 18 No less than 0.001 Deg
16 #322 1970. Jun 28 No less than 20 Deg Simultaneous with UNE #321 from Degelen (mb=5.7)
17 #325 1970 Sep 6 No less than 20 Deg Simultaneous with UNE #326 from Degelen (mb=5.4)
18 #332 1971 Jan 29 Yes less than 20 Deg
19 #334 1971 Mar 22 No less than 20 Deg Simultaneous with UNE #333 from Degelen (mb=5.7)
20 #336 1971 Apr 9 Yes less than 20 Deg
21 #353 1971 Dec 30 No less than 20 Deg Simultaneous with UNE #354 from Degelen (mb=5.7)
22 #359 1972 Apr 20 No less than 0.001 Deg
23 #360 1972 Jun 7 No less than 20 Deg Simultaneous with UNE #361 from Degelen (mb=5.4)
24 #387 1973 Sep 20 No less than 0.001 Bal
25 #393 1973 Nov 4 Yes less than 20 Bal
26 #395 1973 Dec 31 Yes less than 20 Deg
27 #397 1974 Feb 28 No less than 0.001 Deg
28 #404 1974 Jul 29 Yes less than 20 Bal
29 #412 1974 Nov 28 Yes less than 20 Mur
30 #417 1975 Feb 20 No less than 20 Deg Simultaneous with UNE #418 from Degelen (mb=5.7)
31 #424 1975 Jul 15 Yes less than 20 Deg
32 #429 1975 Oct 5 Yes less than 20 Deg
33 #437 1976 Mar 17 Yes less than 20 Deg
34 #439 1976 Apr 10 Yes less than 20 Deg
35 #447 1976 Aug 4 Yes less than 20 Mur
36 #455 1976 Dec 7 No less than 20 Bal Simultaneous with UNE #454 from Balapan (mb=5.9)
37 #458 1977 Mar 29 No 20-150 Mur Simultaneous with UNE #457 from Degelen (mb=5.4)
38 #476 1977 Nov 12 Yes less than 20 Bal
39 #477 1977 Nov 27 Yes less than 20 Deg
40 #480 1977 Dec 26 No less than 20 Deg Simultaneous with UNE #479 from Degelen (mb=4.9)
41 #484 1978 May 24 No less than 0.001 Deg
42 #486 1978 Jun 02 No less than 0.001 Deg
43 #516 1979 Mar 23 No less than 0.001 Deg
44 #517 1979 Apr 10 No less than 0.001 Deg
45 #520 1979 Jun 12 No less than 0.001 Deg
46 #525 1979 Jul 18 No less than 20 Deg Simultaneous with UNE #524 from Balapan (mb=5.2)
47 #543 1980 Mar 14 No less than 0.001 Deg
48 #551 1980 Jun 25 Yes less than 20 Deg
49 #559 1980 Oct 23 Yes less than 20 Deg
50 #561 1980 Dec 5 Yes less than 20 Deg
51 #562 1980 Dec 5 No less than 20 Deg Simultaneous with UNE #561 from Degelen (mb=3.6)
52 #567 1981 Mar 25 No less than 0.001 Deg
53 #572 1981 Jun 4 No less than 0.001 Deg
54 #581 1981 Oct 16 No less than 0.001 Deg
55 #607 1983 Mar 11 No less than 0.001 Deg
56 #627 1983 Nov 2 Yes less than 20 Deg
57 #630 1983 Nov 29 No less than 20 Deg Simultaneous with UNE #629 from Degelen (mb=5.4)
58 #664 1985 Jul 11 Yes less than 20 Deg
59 #665 1985 Jul 19 Yes less than 20 Deg
60 #672 1987 Apr 03 No less than 20 Deg Simultaneous with UNE #671 from Balapan (mb=6.1)
61 #707 1988 Dec 28 Yes less than 20 Deg



Part 5. UNTs AT STS WITH ANNOUNCED YIELD



In the official publication [1] the yield Y was indicated for all PNEs and for 27 UNEs from STS. Among these 27 explosions, seven (## 2, 3, 10, 11, 15, 26, 27 in our table below) were called PNEs in [1] even though they were carried out at a weapons test site (STS) .

In [1] it was also indicated that explosions ## 2, 3, 10, 11 and 26 were not fully tamped, and made a crater.

For four weaker explosions, the teleseismic magnitude mb was not estimated. In these cases we used magnitude data from [7] and [9], where the magnitude mb was calculated from energy class K (Russian equivalent of local magnitude), using the formula:
mb = 0.46K - 0.64 .

Ask Vitaly to check this next Table: maybe I mixed up AWE mb and NORSAR mb(Lg). Also, what is (06:41) for last row of Table?.
The list of UNTs at STS with announced yield
NN Date Y Subarea Media mb-ISC mb-AWE mb(Lg)-NOR Comment
1 1961 Oct 11 1 D granite - m(K)=4.42 - K=11.0
2 1965 Jan 15 140 B sandstone 5.8 5.87 - PNE, crater
3 1965 Oct 14 1.1 M aleurolite - m(K)=4.29 - K=10.7, PNE, crater
4 1965 Nov 21 29 D granite 5.6 5.605 -
5 1966 Feb 13 125 D porphry 6.1 6.256 -
6 1966 Mar 20 100 D porphry 6.0 6.040 -
7 1966 May 7 4 D porphry 4.8 4.734 -
8 1967 Sep 22 10 M aleurolite 5.2 5.160 -
9 1968 Sep 29 60 D porphry 5.8 5.861 -
10 1968 Oct 21 0.24 M argillite - m(K)=4.05 - K=10.2, PNE, crater
11 1968 Nov 12 0.72 M gravel - m(K)=4.24 - K=10.6, PNE, crater
12 1969 Jul 23 16 D porphry 5.4 5.504 -
13 1969 Nov 30 125 B conglomerate 6.0 6.02 6.043
14 1969 Dec 28 40 M aleurolite 5.7 5.791
15 1971 Apr 9 0.23 B _ m(K)=3.87 - K=9.6, PNE
16 1971 Apr 25 90 D granite 5.9 6.076 -
17 1971 Jun 6 16 M aleurolite 5.5 5.526 -
18 1971 Oct 9 12 M aleurolite 5.3 5.371 -
19 1971 Oct 21 23 M sandstone 5.5 5.580 -
20 1972 Feb 10 16 B aleurolite 5.4 5.27 5.372
21 1972 Mar 28 6 D porphry 5.1 5.177 -
22 1972 Aug 16 8 D granite 5.0 5.105 -
23 1972 Sep 2 2 M sandstone 5.1 4.788 -
24 1972 Nov 2 165 B aleurolite 6.1 6.16 6.118
25 1972 Dec 10 140 B tuff, sandstone 6.0 5.96 6.092
26 1974 Dec 7 1.7 M - 4.7 4.369 - PNE, crater
27 1974 Dec 16 3.8 D granite 4.8 4.887 - (06:41) PNE




Part 6. Total annual energy release (in kilotons) of UNTs at STS



Total energy release of UNTs at STS during 1964 - 1989 is 10,840 kilotons.

This does not include the two first UNTs at STS, made in 1961 and 1962, because in those years there were also some atmospheric explosions, whose yield was a part of the total Y for those years.

All figures in the following Table are given to the nearest ten kilotons. In [9] we give a Figure comparing these annual announced totals, with the annual total estimated from seismically determined yields, using the relation
mb = 4.45 + 0.75 log Y
1964 - 90 kt 1965 - 250 kt 1966 - 420 kt 1967 - 220 kt
1968 - 120 kt 1969 - 270 kt 1970 - 150 kt 1971 - 300 kt
1972 - 450 kt 1973 - 310 kt 1974 - 150 kt 1975 - 210 kt
1976 - 300 kt 1977 - 350 kt 1978 - 620 kt 1979 - 960 kt
1980 - 600 kt 1981 - 610 kt 1982 - 470 kt 1983 - 440 kt
1984 - 1,130 kt 1985 - 450 kt 1987 - 1,000 1988 - 670 kt
1989 - 300 kt. - - -

Part 7. FALSE ALARMS. Seismic events which in some publications were wrongly listed as Soviet UNEs.

In several lists of UNEs from USSR territory prepared by different scientists and organizations, many events which are not UNEs were included, that are absent in recent Russian official publications.
For example, Table 10.2 from the Nuclear Weapons Data Book, V.4, included 38 events, which are not UNEs. Most or maybe all of them are chemical explosions.
Note that, for purposes of being confident that a UNE was not missed, it was often appropriate to bring such events to public attention, since they had many of the seismic characteristics of UNEs.

SOME EVENTS WHICH IN DIFFERENT PUBLICATIONS WERE WRONGLY CONSIDERED AS SOVIET UNEs
Date Time Coordinates (N, E) mb Type Reference
1966 Dec 26 17:39:38 (49.52, 78.71) 4.28 Earthquake [8]
1967 Jun 3 09:21:10 (51.68, 75.10) 4.5 Chemical explosion [10]
1976 Mar 20 04:03:39 (50.02, 77.37) 5.00 Earthquake Many publications
1981 Mar 31 07:51:30 (47.97, 80.00) 4.88 Earthquake [10]
1982 Jul 19 09:00:06 (62.53, 47.81) 4.4 Chemical explosion Sultanov, 1993
1984 Sep 15 06:15:07 (50.07, 78.85) 4.33 Chemical explosion [12]
1987 Sep 16 07:30:01 (49.85, 78.79) 4.06 Chemical explosion [10]
1988 Sep 26 07:45:02 (49.93, 78.90) 3.91 Chemical explosion [11]

REFERENCES

  1. USSR Nuclear Tests: general characteristics, goals and organization of nuclear tests in the USSR", Moscow, IZDAT, 1997 (in Russian).
  2. USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests and Peaceful Nuclear Explosions, 1949 through 1990 . Official publication of the Ministry of Atomic Energy and Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. Chief Editor V.I. Mikhaylov. Moscow, 1996, 63 p. (in English). This publication is identical in content to [1].
    [[1] is a book, and has more information than [2]]
  3. USSR Nuclear Tests, Aug 1949 through Oct.1990. Contract DNA 001-95-C-0153 between PTC/VNIIEF, Russia and DNA, USA. Sarov, Moscow, 1995.
  4. Gorin V.V. et al., Semipalatinsk Test Site: The Chronology of UNEs and their primary radiation (at 1961-1989). Issue #4. Inform.Center, Moscow, 1993.
  5. Mikhailov V.N. et al, Nuclear explosions in the USSR. Issue 4. Peaceful usage of underground nuclear explosions. Inform. Center, Moscow, 1994.
  6. Bocharov, V. S., S. A. Zelentsov, and V. I. Mikhailov. Characteristics of 96 underground nuclear explosions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Atomic Energy, 67, N 3, p. 210-214, Moscow, 1989.
  7. Sultanov D.D. et al. Completion of data base of the PNEs on the Former USSR territory. Contract # 201 with IRIS. Moscow IDG, 1995.
  8. Khalturin V.I., T.G. Rautian. P.G. Richards. A Study of Small Explosions and Earthquakes near the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan. Report, 1994.
  9. Khalturin V.I., T.G. Rautian, and P.G. Richards. A Study of Small Magnitude seismic events during 1961-1989 on and near the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan, accepted for publication, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2000.
  10. Sykes L. and Ruggi S. Soviet Nuclear Testing. In Nuclear Weapons Databook, Vol.IV, edited by T.B.Cochran et al. 1989.
  11. Hansen R.A., F. Ringdal and P.G. Richards. The stability of RMS Lg measurements... BSSA, 80, pp. 2106-2126. 1990.
  12. Ringdal, F., P.D. Marshall, and R.W. Alewine. Seismic yield determination of Soviet underground nuclear explosions at the Shagan River test site, Geophys. J. Int., 109, 65-77, 1992.


[back to the top]
[back to the list of supplementary material]
[back to memorial pages for Vitaly Khalturin]
[to Paul Richards' home page]