Before airplanes and satellite phones, polar exploration was a more dangerous undertaking than it is now. A new article in American Scientist retraces Nansen and Shackleton's expeditions from the perspective of modern ocean conditions and sea ice drift conditions.
AGAP: Exploring the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in Antarctica during the International Polar Year
Scientists from several nations are working together to launch a flagship program to explore a major mountain range buried by a large continental ice sheet and bounded by numerous subglacial lakes.
Using geophysical instruments, GAMBIT will peal back more than 600 meters of ice to explore the last hidden mountain range on Earth.