A conal section of the Earth, with plates and plumes visible
(unpublished)

2005




A section of the Earth, plumes removed
(unpublished)

2005




The Outer Core
Molten iron convecting and interacting with the magnetic field (not shown) and inner core (peeking through) and the thermal structure determined by rising and sinking plumes in the lower mantle. (unpublished)

2005




The Inner Core (solid)
It may have a layered structure like an onion, each shell comprised of a giant single crystal of metal.

2005