Climate and water

Atmospheric moisture, evapo(transpi)ration, condensation, and precipitation

Take away ideas and understandings

Moisture in the atmosphere


Condensation and Precipitation


Clouds and precipitation

  • explanantion of processes through the vapor pressure diagram (Fig): air rising => expansion => adiabatical (= no heat exchange with environment) cooling => condensation
  • at T>0oC: warm cloud process: condensation, gradual growth of water droplets by condensation, collision  and coalescence
  • at T<0oC: cold cloud process: involves also the formation and growth of ice crystals
  • two extra factors are needed to form precipitation:
  • Warm cloud process

    Cold cloud process

    Precipitation patterns

    Point measurements of precipitation

    Spatial characteristics of precipitation and radar estimation

    Temporal characteristics of precipitation