CURRICULUM VITAE --------- PAUL G. RICHARDS
1943 Born in Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England
1948 to 1961 Primary and Secondary education in England
1962 to 1965 Undergraduate of Peterhouse, University
of Cambridge. State Scholar. Read Part I of the Mathematical Tripos in 1963, and Part II in 1964. Won college
Mathematics prize (1963), and Essay prize in Physics (1965)
1965 B.A. (Mathematics), University of Cambridge
1965 (August) to 1970 (January) Graduate student at the Seismological
Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Graduate Research
1966 M.S. (Geology), California Institute of Technology
1966 Summer employment with Chevron Research Company (a branch of Standard Oil
1970 Ph.D. (Geophysics), California Institute of Technology. Thesis title
"A contribution to the theory of high frequency elastic waves, with
applications to the shadow boundary of the Earth's core"
1970 (March) to 1971 Assistant Research Geophysicist, Institute of Geophysics
and Planetary Physics, University of California at San Diego
1971 (July) to 1976 (June) Assistant Professor of Geological Sciences, Columbia
1973 (November) to 1977 (June) American Editor, Geophysical Journal of the
Royal Astronomical Society
1976 (July) to 1979 (June) Associate Professor of Geological Sciences, Columbia
1977 (September) Visited Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow, as part of
the U.S. -- U.S.S.R. Exchange Agreement on Research into Earthquake Prediction
1977 to 1978 Guggenheim Fellowship (on sabbatical leave from Columbia, spending
6 months in New Zealand)
1979 (June) to 1983 (June) Member of the Executive Committee of the
Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory
1979 (July) to 1996 Professor of
Geological Sciences, Columbia University
1980 (July) to 1983 (June) Chairman, Geological Sciences, Columbia University;
and Associate Director, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory
1980 (July) to 1983 (June) Member, NAS/NRC Committee on Seismology
1980 (September) U.S. citizenship
1982 to 1983 Member, NSF Oversight Committee on Seismology and Deep Earth
1982 (October) to 1984 (June) Senate Member, Columbia University; Member of
Senate Committees on Education, and External Relations and Research Policy
1983 (September) Visiting lecturer, Peking University
1984 (September) to 1985 (August) On leave from Columbia, as a William C.
Foster Fellow and Visiting Scholar at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament
1987 (July) to 1990 (June) Member, Administrative Committee of the Lamont -
Doherty Geological Observatory
1987 (July) to 2008 (June) Mellon
Professor of the Natural Sciences, Columbia University
1989 (June) Fellowship from the Royal Norwegian Council on Scientific and
Industrial Research, visiting NORSAR
1989 to 1990 Physicist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (on sabbatical
leave from Columbia)
1991 First of several visits to Borovoye Geophysical
Observatory, Kazakhstan, for joint research on seismic monitoring
1992 (July) to 1994 (June) President, Seismology Section, American Geophysical
1993 (September) to 1994 (August) On leave from Columbia, as a William C.
Foster Fellow and Visiting Scholar at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament
1994 to 1998 Member, Administrative Committee of the Lamont - Doherty Earth
1996 to 2008 Professor of Earth and
Environmental Sciences, Columbia University
1997 (March-August) Visiting Scholar, at Los Alamos National Laboratory (on
sabbatical leave from Columbia)
2008 (July) retired from full-time professorship, but continues to teach
Columbia undergraduates, and appointed as Special Research Scientist at the
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.
SERVICE (1990 and later)
Seismic Review Panel, for U.S. Air Force Tactical Applications Center
(1985 to present)
on seismic monitoring for the U.S. Department of State (1998 to present;
and earlier, from 1985 to 1998, for the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament
Board of Editors of the journal Wave
Motion, 1985 to 1992
Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS): chairman of
search committees for IRIS President, in 1985 and in 1990; member of
Executive Committee, 1987 to 1990; Vice-Chairman of Board of Directors,
1988 to 90; member of Standing Committee on Data Management Center, 1996
to 1999. Member, nominating committee, 2003 and 2004; and of ad hoc
committee on reorganization of IRIS Board of Directors, 2004
Member of Council, American Geophysical Union, 1990-94; President,
Seismology Section, 1994 to 1996
Faculty Planning Committee, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Columbia
University, 1991 to 1993
of Visitors, Office of Naval Research, 1992
Board of Editors, Journal of
Computational Acoustics, 1991 to 1997
US delegation to the Conference on Disarmament (negotiating a
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty), Geneva, June 1995; and made a formal presentation
for the United States at the CD Experts Meeting, on "Problems posed
by chemical explosions”
NAS/NRC Panels on Seismological Data and Research Requirements for a
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, 1994-1995 and 1995-1997
planning committee of NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Nov 1994, Moscow,
on: Earthquakes Induced by Underground Nuclear Explosions
Lecturer, NATO Advanced Study Institute, Jan-Feb 1995, Portugal, on:
Monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
Red Team advising the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency on
capability of the U.S. to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Test
Ban Treaty (1997 to 1998)
lecturer in China for three weeks (May 1999), on Seismology for the 21st
Century (in Shanghai), plus general lectures on seismic monitoring (at the
Northwest Institute for Nuclear Technologies)
the "Distinguished GEO-lecturer" series at NSF headquarters,
of panel established by the National Academy of Sciences Committee on
International Security and Arms Control, studying technical issues
associated with ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty,
2000 to 2003, and drafted the panel’s chapter on nuclear explosion
monitoring (published 2002); member of a seismology subcommittee appointed
2009 to update the 2002 publication
to the Executive Committee of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Columbia
University, 2000 to 2003
to Board of Directors of the Seismological Society of America, 2002 to 2005;
and re-elected for a second term, 2006 to 2009
Earth Institute at Columbia University, Academic Committee, 2003 to 2006
the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the Comprehensive
Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization: member of planning committees for
Science and Technology conferences held in 2006, 2009, and 2011; and for
the next one S&T2013 (June 17 to 21)
awarded by the Sloan Foundation (1973 to 1977)
Recipient of James B. Macelwane Award (given by
the American Geophysical Union); Fellow of the American Geophysical Union
awarded by the Guggenheim Foundation (1977 to 1978)
awarded by the MacArthur Foundation (1981 to 1986)
Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar in 2000--2001 (on sabbatical leave from
Columbia, gave lecture series at each of ten colleges/universities)
- elected Fellow of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science (1993)
- selected as member, Council on Foreign Relations (1992)
Jeffreys Lecturer, Royal Astronomical Society,
given in March 1999, subject: Earth's Inner Core—Discoveries and
of the Leo Szilard Lectureship Award in 2006 from the American Physical
Society, for work on seismic monitoring (and gave Szilard Lectures in 2007
at Caltech and UCLA)
- elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and
Fielding Reid Medalist of the Seismological Society of America for 2009
(awarded in 2010)
Society of America
of Exploration Geophysicists
Geophysical Union (Fellow since 1977)
Association for the Advancement of Science (Fellow since 1993)
on Foreign Relations
Society of Explosives Engineers
Academy of Arts and Sciences (Fellow since 2008))
- T.-L. Teng and Paul G.
Richards, Diffracted SH and SV, Nature, 218,
- T.-L. Teng and Paul G.
Richards, Diffracted P, SH and SV waves, and their shadow boundary shifts, Journal of Geophysical Research, 74, 1537--1555, 1969.
G. Richards, A contribution to the theory of high frequency elastic waves,
with applications to the shadow boundary of the Earth's core, Ph.D. Thesis, California Institute
of Technology, 1970.
G. Richards, Potentials for elastic displacement in spherically symmetric
media, Journal of the Acoustical
Society of America, 50,
G. Richards, An elasticity theorem for heterogeneous media, with an
example of body wave dispersion in the Earth, Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 22, 453--472, 1971.
G. Richards, A theory for pressure radiation from ocean-bottom
earthquakes, Bulletin of the
Seismological Society of America, 61,
G. Richards, Elastic wave solutions in stratified media, Geophysics, 36, 798--809, 1971.
G. Richards, Seismic waves reflected from velocity gradient anomalies
within the Earth's upper mantle, Zeitschrift für Geophysik, 38, 517--527, 1972.
G. Richards, The dynamic field of a growing plane elliptical shear crack, International Journal of Solids and
Structures, 9, 843--861,
G. Richards, Dynamic properties of an earthquake source, Proceedings of the Fifth World
Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, June 1973.
G. Richards, Calculation of body waves, for caustics and tunnelling in core phases, Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 35, 243--264, 1973.
G. Richards, Weakly coupled potentials for high-frequency elastic waves in
continuously stratified media, Bulletin
of the Seismological Society of America, 64, 1575--1588, 1974.
L. Choy and Paul G. Richards, Pulse distortion and Hilbert transformation
in multiply reflected and refracted body waves, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 65, 55--70, 1975.
- Yash P. Aggarwal, Lynn R.
Sykes, David W. Simpson and Paul G. Richards, Spatial and temporal
variations in ts/tp
and in P-wave residuals at Blue
Mountain Lake, New York: Application to earthquake prediction, Journal of Geophysical Research, 80, 718--732, 1975.
G. Richards, Theoretical seismology, IUGG
Quadrennial Report, Reviews of
Geophysics and Space Physics, 13,
295--298 and 313--316, 1975.
Anderson and Paul G. Richards, Comparison of strong ground motion from
several dislocation models, Geophysical
Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 42, 347--373, 1975.
G. Richards, Dynamic motions near an earthquake fault: A three-dimensional
solution, Bulletin of the
Seismological Society of America, 60,
1--32, 1976. PDF
G. Richards and Clint W. Frasier, Scattering of elastic waves from
depth-dependent inhomogeneities, Geophysics,
41, 441--458, 1976.
Cormier and Paul G. Richards, Comments on a paper by Qamar
and Eisenberg concerning attenuation in the Earth's outer core, Journal of Geophysical Research, 81, 3066--3068, 1976.
G. Richards, On the adequacy of plane-wave
reflection/transmission coefficients in the analysis of seismic body
waves, Bulletin of the Seismological
Society of America, 66,
Cormier and Paul G. Richards, Full wave theory applied to a discontinuous velocity
increase: The Earth's inner core, Journal
of Geophysics, 43, 3--31,
G. Richards, Theoretical seismic wave propagation, IUGG Quadrennial Report, Review
of Geophysics and Space Physics, 17,
G. Richards, Elementary solutions to Lamb's problem for a point source and
their relevance to three dimensional studies of
spontaneous crack propagation, Bulletin
of the Seismological Society of
America, 69, 947--956,
- Shamita Das and Paul G. Richards, Effects of
non-uniform spontaneous rupture propagation on the level and duration of
earthquake ground motion, Proceedings
of the Second U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering,
Stanford, California, 1979.
Aki and Paul G. Richards, Quantitative
Seismology: Theory and Methods, two volumes, W. H. Freeman and
Company, San Francisco, California, February 1980. (Russian edition, 1983.
Chinese edition, 1986.)
H. Menke and Paul G. Richards, Crust-mantle
whispering gallery phases: A deterministic model of teleseismic Pn
wave propagation, Journal of
Geophysical Research, 85,
L. Choy, Vernon F. Cormier, Rainer Kind, Gerhard Müller and Paul G.
Richards, A comparison of synthetic seismograms of core phases generated
by the full wave theory and by the reflectivity method, Geophysical Journal of the Royal
Astronomical Society, 61, 21--39,
1980 (and Corrigendum, 62,
W. Simpson and Paul G. Richards (editors), Earthquake Prediction --- An International Review, 680 pages,
Maurice Ewing Series #4, American Geophysical Union, 1981.
H. Menke and Paul G. Richards, On extending Biot's theory of
low-frequency acoustic scatter about a rough fluid-rigid interface to more
general acoustic media, Journal of
the Acoustical Society of America, 71, 1101--1105, 1982.
H. Menke and Paul G. Richards, The horizontal
propagation of P waves through
scattering media: Analog model studies relevant to long range Pn
propagation, Bulletin of the
Seismological Society of America, 73,
G. Richards and William H. Menke, The apparent
attenuation of a scattering medium, Bulletin
of the Seismological Society of America, 73, 1005--1021, 1983.
G. Richards, On wavefronts and interfaces in anelastic media, Bulletin
of the Seismological Society of America, 74, 2157--2165, 1984.
G. Richards, Seismic wave propagation effects development of theory and
numerical modelling, chapter in DARPA
commemorative volume The VELA
Program: A Twenty-Five Year Review of Basic Research, ed. A.U. Kerr,
pp. 183--251, 1985.
G. Richards, Interpretation of the 15 January 1965 cratering explosion at Shagan River (27 pp, for U.S. Arms Control and
Disarmament Agency), July 1985.
G. Richards, Station magnitude bias --- its existence and estimation (28
pages, for U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency), August 1985.
G. Richards, written testimony for the House Permanent Select Committee on
Intelligence, May 6, 1986. (Closed hearing -- testimony and transcript can
be released only after consideration and vote of the whole committee.
Subject of this invited testimony was: organization and management within
the government, of the research and development of new approaches for
G. Richards, Underground nuclear testing (19 Sept. 1957), in Book of Days 1987: A Guide to
Anniversaries of People and Events, ed. C.S. Johnson, pp 462--463, Pieran Press, 1987.
G. Richards and Allan Lindh, Toward a New Test
Ban Regime, Issues in Science and
Technology, National Academy of Sciences, 3, # 3, 101--108, Spring 1987.
Witte and Paul G. Richards, Modeling Seismic Wave Propagation in 2-D and
3-D structures, Lamont-Doherty
Geological Observatory Yearbook, 64--68, 1987.
G. Richards, written testimony for the Senate Committee on Foreign
Relations, Senate Hearing Record, January 15, 1987. Available as Senate Hearing 100-115; pp 72--86,
286--291, 325--358, and 394--396; 1987.
G. Richards and Joseph Nye, Weapons Testing and Nuclear Weapons
Proliferation: Prospects for the Future, in Science and Security: the Future of Arms Control, Colloquium
Proceedings, December 4-5, 1986 , pp.
189--218, AAAS Publication No. 87-17, 1987.
G. Richards, written testimony for the Senate Committee on Armed Services,
Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Nuclear Deterrence, Senate Hearing
Record, February 26, 1987. Available as Senate Hearing 100-242, Pt. 4; pp 1846--1853, 1864--1872;
G. Richards, Consideration of Chemical Explosions, a seven-page paper
delivered April 28 1987 to the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), for
incorporation in the 1988 OTA report
on Seismic Verification of Nuclear Test Limitation Treaties. Richards
also wrote the first draft of chapter 5 (on "Identification of
Underground Nuclear Explosions") for this report (published May,
G. Richards, Towards Improvement in Capabilities for Seismic Monitoring of
Underground Nuclear Explosions, for a conference in association with the
U.N. Special Session on Disarmament, New York, May 1988.
F. Cormier and Paul G. Richards, Spectral Synthesis of Body Waves in Earth
Models Specified by Vertically Varying Layers, in the book Seismological Algorithms, edited by
D. Doornbos, pp 3--45, Academic Press, 1988.
G. Richards, Stages Toward a New Test Ban, chapter 4 in the book Verification and Compliance: a
Problem-Solving Approach, pp 73--91, edited by Michael Krepon and Mary Umberger,
Macmillan (U.K.) and Ballinger (U.S.A.), 1988.
G. Richards, Nuclear Test Ban Treaties and Seismic Monitoring of
Underground Nuclear Explosions: an Overview of the Historical, Technical,
and Political Issues, Proceedings of
the Alan S. Attardo Symposium on Science and
Society, held at Yale University on April 7, 1988. 36 pages.
G. Richards, Seismic Methods for Verifying Test Ban Treaties, Chapter 4 of
the book Nuclear Arms Technologies
in the 1990's, edited by D. Schroeer and D. Hafemeister, AIP Conference Proceedings 178, pp
54--108, American Institute of Physics, New York, 1988.
G. Richards, Seismic monitoring of nuclear explosions, in Encyclopedia of Geophysics, ed.
D.E. James, pp 1071--1089, Van Nostrand
G. Richards, Science Education for Undergraduates Goals and Roles, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory
Yearbook, pp 26--29, 1989.
A. Hansen, Frode Ringdal,
and Paul G. Richards, Analysis of IRIS data for Soviet nuclear explosions,
NORSAR Semiannual Technical Summary,
1 October 1988 -- 31 March 1989, pp. 124--140, NTNF: Kjeller,
C. Witte and Paul G. Richards, The Pseudospectral
Method for Simulating Wave Propagation, Computational Acoustics, Volume 3 (editors: D. Lee, A. Cakmak, R. Vichnevetsky),
North-Holland, pp 1--17, 1990.
G. Richards and John Zavales, Seismic
Discrimination of Nuclear Explosions, Annual
Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 18, 257--86, 1990.
A. Hansen, Frode Ringdal,
and Paul G. Richards, The Stability of RMS Lg Measurements and their Potential for Accurate Estimation of
the Yields of Soviet Underground Nuclear Explosions, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 8, 2106--2126, 1990. PDF
G. Richards, Progress in Seismic Verification of Test Ban Treaties, IEEE Technology and Society Magazine,
9, #4, 40--52, December 1990.
G. Richards, testimony requested by the Senate Select Comittee
on Intelligence as part of the Senate's discussion (advice and consent to
ratification) of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty. Testimony appears on pp.
S13741--13751 of the Congressional
Record for September 25, 1990.
G. Richards, A short course on theoretical seismology, in Oceanographic and Geophysical
Tomography, edited by Albert Tarantola, Yves
Desaubies, and J. Zinn-Justin,
pp 29--134, North-Holland: Amsterdam, 1990.
G. Richards and Frederick K. Lamb, Testing Experts rebut Robinson, Arms Control Today, p22, September
Taylor, Howard Patton, and Paul G. Richards, editors, Explosion Source Phenomenology, 268 pages, Geophysical
Monograph #65, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, December 1991.
G. Richards, Dean Witte and Göran Ekström,
Generalized Ray Theory for Seismic Waves in Structures with Planar
Non-Parallel Interfaces, Bulletin of
the Seismological Society of America, 81, 1309--1331, August 1991.
G. Richards, Douglas Anderson, and David Simpson, A Survey of Blasting
Activity in the United States, Bulletin
of the Seismological Society of America, 82, 1416--1433, June 1992. PDF
G. Richards, Won-Young Kim, and Göran Ekström,
The Borovoye Geophysical Observatory,
Kazakhstan, feature article in EOS,
Transactions of the American
Geophysical Union, 73, 201
and 205--206, May 5 1992. PDF
G. Richards and Won-Young Kim, The Problem of Chemical Explosions and some
Solutions, Proceedings of a
Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons
Proliferation, pp 1936, Las Vegas, May 6--7, 1992.
G. Richards, report to the Nuclear Control Institute on signals from the
seismic event of 1983 May 16, located in Xinjiang Province, China, 19
pages, October 1992.
- Frode Ringdal and Paul G.
Richards, The Ukrainian event of 16 September 1979, in NORSAR Scientific
Report No. 1 92/93, pp 120--124, November 1992.
H. Thurber, Howard R. Quin, and Paul G.
Richards, Accurate locations of nuclear explosions in Balapan,
Kazakhstan, 1987 to 1989, Geophysical
Research Letters, 20,
399--402, March 5, 1993.
- Göran Ekström and Paul G. Richards, Empirical
measurements of tectonic moment release in nuclear explosions from
teleseismic surface waves and body waves, Geophysical Journal International, 117, 120--140, 1994.
Kim, D.W. Simpson and Paul G. Richards, Discrimination of earthquakes and
explosions in the Eastern United States using regional high-frequency
data, Geophysical Review Letters,
20, 1507--1510, July 23 1993.
G. Richards and Won-Young Kim, Earthquakes (about 6000 words and 12
figures), The New Book of Knowledge,
1994 edition, published by Grolier.
G. Richards, Testing the test-ban treaty, Nature, 364,
188--189, July 15 1993. PDF
Kim, D.W. Simpson, and Paul G. Richards, High-frequency Spectra of Regional
Phases from Earthquakes and Chemical Explosions, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 84, 1365--1386, 1994.
G. Richards, Verification of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty - a
Seismological Overview, pp 28--36 in Verification
after the Cold War, edited by J. Altmann, T.
Stock, J.-P. Stroot, VU
University Press, Amsterdam, 1994.
- V. Khalturin, T. Rautian, and
Paul G. Richards, A study of small earthquakes and small explosions during
1961--1989 at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan, 64 page technical
report for subcontract B-239589 with Regents of Univ. of Calif., 64p., March 1994.
G. Richards, Blasting Activity of the Mining Industry in the United
States, in Proceedings of a
Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications
for Test Ban Treaties, sponsored by LLNL/Department of Energy,
CONF-9404100, pp. 2-16 to 2-35, April 1994, Rockville, Maryland, ed. M.D.
G. Richards, Problems for CTBT Verification posed by Chemical Explosions,
paper taken through inter-agency review, and presented for the United
States in Geneva, June 10, 1994, CD/NTB/WP.105, 1994.
E. Vidale, Saskia
Goes, and Paul G. Richards, Near-field deformation seen on distant
broadband seismograms, Geophysical
Research Letters, 22, 1--4,
G. Richards and John Zavales, Seismological
methods for monitoring a CTBT: the technical issues arising in early
negotiations, pages 53--81 in Monitoring
a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, eds. E.S. Husebye
and A.M. Dainty, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 836 pages, 1996. PDF
(889K) of paper as published, plus separate
link to an updated/online version
G. Richards and Göran Ekström, Earthquake
activity associated with underground nuclear explosions, in Inducing of Earthquakes by Underground
Nuclear Explosions, NATO ASI Series, Partnership Sub-Series, 2.
Environment Vol. 4, eds. R. Console and A. Nikolaev, pp 21--34, Springer Verlag,
Berlin Heidelberg, 1995.
- Shi, Jinghua, Won-Young Kim and Paul G. Richards,
Variability of crustal attenuation in the northeastern United States from Lg waves, Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 25231--25242, 1996 (correction, 102, 11899, 1997).
- Shi, Jinghua, Won-Young Kim and Paul G. Richards, The
stability of RMS Lg values in
estimating the size of regional earthquakes in New York State and adjacent
areas, submitted to Seismological
Review Letters, January 1998.
- Kim, W.-Y., V. Aharonian, A.L.
Lerner-Lam, and P.G. Richards, Discrimination of earthquakes and
explosions in Southern Russia using regional high-frequency
three-component data from the IRIS/JSP Caucasus network, Bulletin of the Seismological Society
of America, 87, 569--588,
- Song, Xiaodong, and Paul G. Richards, Seismological evidence
for differential rotation of the Earth's inner core, Nature, 382,
221--224, July 18 1996. PDF
- Hennet, C.B., G.E. van der Vink,
P. G. Richards, V.V. Adushkin, Y.F. Kopnichev, and R. Geary, Multi-use seismic stations
offer strong deterrent to clandestine nuclear weapons testing, feature
article in EOS, Transactions of the American
Geophysical Union, 77, 289
& 300--301, July 30, 1996.
Paul G., Seismological Methods of Monitoring and the International
Monitoring System, in The
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: Issues and Answers, edited by Matthew McKinzie (Proceedings of a Symposium held at Cornell
University, October 11 -- 13, 1996), pp 71--89, June 1997.
- Shi, Jinghua, Won-Young Kim, and Paul G. Richards, The
corner frequencies and stress drops of intraplate earthquakes in the
Northeastern United States, Bulletin
of the Seismological Society of America, 88, 531--542, 1998.
Paul G., The Dallas Morning News
called it A Little Extra Spin, lead article for GSAS News & Views,
the newsletter of Columbia Univerity's Graduate
School of Arts and Sciences, Summer 1997.
Paul G., and Won-Young Kim, Testing the nuclear test-ban
treaty, Nature, 389, 781--782, October 23 1997.
Nature paper (112K); also related
news stories and CIA statement (8K)
Paul G., Earth Interior, in the McGraw-Hill
Yearbook of Science & Technology 1999, pp 135--137.
- Khalturin, Vitaly I.,
Tatyana G. Rautian, and Paul G. Richards, The
seismic signal strength of chemical explosions, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 88, 1511--1524, 1998. PDF
- Shi, Jinghua, Paul G. Richards, and Won-Young Kim,
Determination of seismic energy from Lg
waves, Bulletin of the Seismological
Society of America, 90,
- Khalturin, Vitaly I.,
Tatyana G. Rautian, and Paul G. Richards,
Magnitude distributions of mine blasting activity
in different regions, technical report, 1999.
Brian, Michael Clark, Peter Davis, Mark Fisk, Michael Hedlin,
Hans Israelsson, Vitaly
Khalturin, Won-Young Kim, Keith McLaughlin,
Charles Meade, John Murphy, Robert North, John Orcutt,
Chris Powell, Paul G. Richards, Richard Stead, Jeffry Stevens, Frank
Vernon, Terry Wallace, Seismology: Monitoring Nuclear Tests, Science, 281, # 5385, pages 1967--1968, issue of 25 Sept 1998. PDF
Paul G., Xiaodong Song, and Anyi
Li, Detecting possible rotation of Earth's inner core, Science, 282, 1227a, issue of 13 November 1998 (full text is at this link to
- Khalturin, Vitaly I.,
Tatyana G. Rautian, and Paul G. Richards, A
study of small magnitude seismic events during 1961 -- 1989 near and on
the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazkhstan, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 158, 143--171, 2001. PDF
supplement covering many technical details
Paul G., Building the Global Seismographic Network for Test Ban
Monitoring, Earth Matters, pp
37--40, Fall 1999.
- Li, Anyi, and Paul G. Richards, Study of inner core
rotation using Novaya Zemlya nuclear explosions, a paper in Earth's Core: Dynamics, Structure,
Rotation, AGU monograph, Geodynamics Series 31, Eds. V. Dehant, K. Creager, S. Zatman, and S.Karato,
Paul G., Earth's Inner Core Discoveries and Conjectures, Astronomy & Geophysics, The
Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 41, 20--24, February 2000. Longer version available as my Jeffreys Lecture.
Paul G., Seismological Methods of Monitoring Compliance with the
Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, Chapter 24 (pp. 369--382) of the International Handbook of Earthquake
and Engineering Seismology, Part A, edited by W.H.K. Lee, H. Kanamori, and P. Jennings on behalf of the
International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's
Interior, Academic Press, 2002. PDF
- V. I. Khalturin, T. G. Rautian,
and P. G. Richards, Chemical Explosions during 1961--1988 on the
Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan, in Geophysics and Non-Proliferation Problems, Bulletin of the
National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, issue number 2,
41--44, June 2000. PDF
Aki and Paul G. Richards, Quantitative
Seismology: Theory and Methods, second edition, 12 chapters in one
volume, University Science Books, August 2002. Japanese edition (Kokon Shoin, Tokyo), July
2004. Paperback version available since April 2009 via http://www.uscibooks.com/aki.htm and I hope you can still get a price
break from this site.
Bunn, Sidney D. Drell, Richard L. Garwin, Thomas Graham, Jr., Damien LaVera,
Jack Mendelsohn (Editor), Paul G. Richards, and Amy Sands, White Paper on
the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Lawyers Alliance for World
Security, 81 p, Fall 2000.
Yang, Robert North, Carl Romney, and Paul G. Richards. Worldwide Nuclear
Explosions, Chapter 84 of the International
Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, edited by W.H.K.
Lee, H. Kanamori, P. Jennings, and C. Kisslinger on behalf of the International Association
of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior, Academic Press, 2002. PDF
G. Richards, Commentary: future directions for global bulletins, IRIS Newsletter, vol. 2000, no. 1,
12--13, December 2000. PDF
G. Richards, Won-Young Kim, and Vitaly I. Khalturin, A Plan for Location Calibration of IMS
Stations in and near Kazakhstan, Geophysics
and Non-proliferation problems, issue 2, National Nuclear Centre of
the Republic of Kazakhstan, June 2001. PDF
Won-Young, L. R. Sykes, J. H. Armitage, J. K. Xie, K. H. Jacob, P. G. Richards, M. West, F.
Waldhauser, J. Armbruster, L. Seeber, W. X. Du, and A. Lerner-Lam, Seismic waves generated
by aircraft impacts and building collapses at World Trade Center, New York
City, feature article in EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 82, pages 565, 570--571, November 20, 2001. PDF
- Li, Anyi, and Paul G. Richards, Using earthquake doublets
to study inner core rotation and seismicity catalog precision, G-Cubed, 4, 1072, doi: 10.1029/200GC000379, 9
September 2003. PDF
John P., Won-Young Kim, and Paul G. Richards, An assessment of seismic
body-wave magnitudes published by the Prototype International Data Centre,
Seismological Review Letters, 73, 893--906, 2002.
on Technical Issues Related to Ratification of the Comprehensive
Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Technical Issues related to the Comprehensive
Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy
Press, 2002. (Richards wrote almost all of Chapter 2, on CTBT Monitoring
Capability.) PDFs as follows: Executive
Summary (156K); Introduction
Stewardship (216K); Monitoring
Capability (284K); Foreign
Testing (216K); All
Text (1.2M); All
G. Richards, On seismic sources volume changes, Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft e.V.,
Symposium in Memoriam of Prof. Gerhard Müller, pp 40--44, Sonderband I/2004.
Felix, and Paul G. Richards, Reference events for regional phases at IMS
stations in China, Bulletin of the
Seismological Society of America, 94,
2265--2279, December 2004. PDF
David P., and Paul G. Richards, Lg-wave
cross correlation and double-difference location: application to the 1999 Xiuyan, China, sequence, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 94, 867--879, 2004. PDF
- Yang, Zhi-xian, Felix Waldhauser, Yun-tai Chen, and Paul G.
Richards, Double-difference relocation of earthquakes in central-western
China, 1992--1999, Journal of
Seismology, 9, 241--264,
P. Schaff and Paul G. Richards, Repeating seismic events in China, SCIENCE, 303, 1176--1178, February 20, 2004. PDFs: (main
paper, 336K); also (supplementary
online material, 156K)
- Valeriu Burlacu, Mark Fisk,
John Armbruster, Vitaly
I. Khalturin, Won-Young Kim, Paul G. Richards,
David P. Schaff, Felix Waldhauser, Michael West, Igor Morozov,
Elena Morozova, Vernon Cormier, Anastasia Stroujkova, and Chandan Saikia, Development and Validation Testing of a
Regionalized Travel-Time Model, and Source-Specific Station Corrections
for Thirty IMS Stations and Other Stations in East Asia, Final Report on
DTRA01-00-C-0031, 281 pages, August 2003. PDF (40M -- very large) is
obtainable by ftp from ftp.ldeo.columbia.edu (then cd to pub/richards and acquire the binary file VTR_2003.pdf). A
short version is available as PDF
G. Richards and Won-Young Kim, Equivalent volume sources for explosions at
depth: theory and observations, Bulletin
of the Seismological Society of America, 95, 401--407, 2005. PDF
Waldhauser, David Schaff, Paul G. Richards, and Won-Young Kim, Lop Nor
Revisited: Underground Nuclear Explosion Locations, 1976-1996, from Double-difference
Analysis of Regional and Teleseismic Data, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 94, 1879--1889, October 2004. PDF
- Vitaly I. Khalturin, Tatyana
G. Rautian, Paul G. Richards, and William S. Leith, A review of nuclear testing by the Soviet Union
at Novaya Zemlya, 1955 -- 1990, Science
& Global Security, 13,
1--42, 2005. PDF
P. Granville, Paul G. Richards, Won-Young Kim, and Lynn R. Sykes,
Understanding the difference between three teleseismic mb
scales, Bulletin of the
Seismological Society of America, with electronic supplement, 95, 1809--1824, October 2005. PDF
(460K); also online
- Jian Zhang, Xiaodong Song, Yingchun Li, Paul G. Richards, Xinlei
Sun, and Felix Waldhauser, Inner core differential motion confirmed by
earthquake waveform doublets, Science,
309, 1357--1360, 26 August
2005. PDFs: main
paper (456K); also supplementary
online material (5.9M). [This latter file contains many examples of
doublets in which the time shift of PKP(DF) with
respect to PKP(BC) and PKP(AB) is clearly shown.]
B. Morozov, Elena Morozova,
Scott B. Smithson, Paul G. Richards, Vitaly I Khalturin, and Leonid N. Solidilov,
3D first-arrival regional calibration model of Northern Eurasia, Bulletin
of the Seismological Society of America, 95, 951--964, doi:
10.1785/0120030173, 2005. PDF
G. Richards, Keiiti Aki (1930 -- 2005), Seismologiste
extraordinaire, Nature, 430, 1176, June 30, 2005. PDF
G. Richards, Keiiti Aki (1930 -- 2005), Seismologist and Leader, Seismological Research Letters, 76, 551--553, Sept./Oct. 2005. PDF
G. Richards and Anyi Li, Inner core rotation,
pages 423--425 in Encyclopedia of
Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism, eds. David Gubbins and Emilio
Herrero-Bervera, Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences
Series, general editors Rhodes Fairbridge and
Michael Rampino, Springer, 2007. PDF
G. Richards, Felix Waldhauser, David Schaff, and Won-Young Kim, The
applicability of modern methods of earthquake location, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 165, 351--372, 2006. PDF
G. Richards, Uses of Seismic Data
and the Importance of Open Access to Major Data Centers in Seismology,
pp 78 -- 79 in "Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to
Scientific Data in China," National Research Council Report, 2006.
G. Richards, Forensic Seismology and CTBT verification, feature article in
CTBTO Spectrum, issue no. 9,
pages 1, 6, and 14, January 2007. PDF
G. Richards and Won-Young Kim, Commentary: Seismic Signature, Nature Physics, 3, 4--6, January 2007. PDF
Kim and Paul G. Richards, North Korean Nuclear Test: Seismic
Discrimination at Low Yield, feature article in EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 88, no. 14, pages 157 and 161, 3
April 2007. PDF
Hamburger, Yuri Kopnichev, Anatoli
Levshin, Vladislav Martynov, Natalya Mikhailova,
Peter Molnar, Paul G. Richards, Steve Roecker,
David Simpson, Brian E. Tucker, Robert Wesson, In Memoriam Vitaly Ivanovich Khalturin, Seismological
Review Letters, 78,
577--578, issue of Nov/Dec 2007. link to this article and other articles and images in
memory of Vitaly
G. Richards, CTBT Monitoring: a vital activity for our profession, Seismological Review Letters, 79, 375--378, May/June, 2008. PDF
- Jian Zhang, Paul G. Richards, and David Schaff,
Wide-scale detection of earthquake waveform doublets and further evidence
for inner core super-rotation, Geophysical
Journal International, 174,
993–1006, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03856.x,
G. Richards and Won-Young Kim, Analysis of digital seismograms from
nuclear explosions across forty years, Proceedings of Fifth International
Conference (held at Borovoye, Kazakhstan, August
2008) on Monitoring of nuclear tests
and their consequences, seven pages, Vestnik, 2008. PDF
G. Richards and Won-Young Kim, Monitoring for Nuclear Explosions, Scientific American, 300, 70–77, March 2009. PDF
(156K) There are two errata (due to
editors’ errors): the Figure showing a global map of the detection
capability of the International Monitoring System did not explain that
this is hypothetical---it’s what is expected if the primary network is
built and operated according to specifications (but, it turns out to have
been about right, now that the network is mostly built). Also, there’s a mistaken sentence on the
first page---about North Korea having a significant amount of weapons
grade uranium---which was introduced by an editor after I’d checked the
page proofs! (North Korea has apparently obtained enough plutonium
for several weapons. Apparently it
also has a U-235 program.)
J. Zucca, William R. Walter, Arthur Rodgers,
Paul G. Richards, Michael Pasyanos, Stephen C.
Myers, Thorne Lay, Dave Harris, and Tarabay Antoun, The prospect of using three-dimensional Earth
models to improve nuclear explosion monitoring and ground motion hazard
assessment, Seismological Research
Letters, 80, 31–39,
January/February, 2009. PDF
R. Sykes and Paul G. Richards, Seismology, in Science for Security, Verifying the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban
Treaty, pages 5--10, Public Information Preparatory Commission for the
CTBTO, 2009. PDF
Kim, Paul G. Richards, Diane Baker, Howard Patton, and George Randall,
Improvements to a Major Digital Archive of Seismic Waveforms from Nuclear
Explosions, Final Report AFRL-RV-HA-TR-2010-1024, Air Force Research
Laboratory, 127 pages, 23 March 2010. PDF
P. Schaff and Paul G. Richards, Studies of Repeating Earthquakes in China,
Research and Technology Review, National Nuclear Center of the Republic of
Kazakhstan, Issue 3(43), 149–151, September 2010. PDF
N. Brune and Paul G. Richards, Harry Fielding
Reid Medal, Citation and Response, Seismological
Research Letters, 81,
820–822, September/October, 2010. PDF
G. Richards and Zhongliang Wu, Seismic
Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions, in Encyclopedia
of Solid Earth Geophysics, ed. Harsh Gupta, Encyclopedia of Earth
Sciences Series, pages 1144 to 1156, Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands,
- Zhongliang Wu and Paul G. Richards, Seismology,
Monitoring of CTBT, in Encyclopedia
of Solid Earth Geophysics, ed. Harsh Gupta, Encyclopedia of Earth
Sciences Series, pages 1340 to 1344, Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands,
P. Schaff and Paul G. Richards, On finding and using repeating seismic
events in and near China, Journal of
Geophysical Research–Solid Earth, vol. 116 (20 pages), B03309, doi:10.1029/2010JB007895, 2011. link to this AGU/JGR publication
Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty—Technical Issues for the United
States (update of item #108 above):
Richards was a member of the subcommittee on Seismology for this
report, contributing to chapters and appendices available from http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12849 , released
March 30, 2012.
P. Schaff, Won-Young Kim, and Paul G. Richards, Seismological Constraints
on Proposed Low-Yield Nuclear Testing in Particular Regions and Time
Periods in the Past, with Comments
on “Radionuclide Evidence for Low-Yield Nuclear Testing in North Korea in
by Lars-Erik De Geer, Science
& Global Security, 20,
155–171, 2012. link to this S&GS publication
- D. P. Schaff, W.-Y.
Kim, and P. G. Richards, Application of Cross-Correlation Methods to
Evaluate Specific Claims of Low-Yield Nuclear Testing, Research and
Technology Review, National Nuclear
Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 5–10, June 2, 2012. PDF
(650K), in Russian
- Paul G. Richards, written remarks on the
North Korea nuclear test of February 2013, in CTBTO Spectrum, in press, 2013.
P. Schaff and Paul G. Richards, Improvements in magnitude precision, using
the statistics of relative amplitudes measured by cross correlation, for Geophysical Journal International, ms.,
33 pages, 10 Figures.
that have some merit
G. Richards' write-up of the original job description (and ad) for IRIS
President, late 1983.
G. Richards, Tutorial on Estimation of Nuclear Explosion Yield using
Seismic Methods, 35 pages, 1986.
G. Richards, Analysis of the 15 January 1965 Cratering Explosion at Shagan River, Eastern Kazakhstan, and Implications for
estimating the Yields of subsequent large Nuclear Explosions at the Shagan River Test Site, 20 pages, 1986.
Witte and Paul G. Richards, The Stability and Accuracy of Pseudospectral Simulations of Wave Propagation,
intended for submission to Wave
Motion (chapter of Dean Witte's thesis, but he never submitted it).
Witte and Paul G. Richards, A Hybrid Wave Propagation Method for Irregular
Inclusions Within Regular Media, intended for submission to Journal of the Acoustical Society of
America (chapter of Dean Witte's thesis, but he never submitted it).
G. Richards, Calculation of body-wave pulse shapes, with allowance for
frequency-dependent Q, in AFGL-TR-87-0049, a technical report to the Air
Force Geophysics Laboratory, 15 February 1987.
G. Richards, Verification of Nuclear Test Ban Treaties -- an Example of
Interaction between Technical and Political Perspectives, paper for a
Princeton University symposium on Geology and Society, February 1989.
G. Richards, Opening Remarks and Closing Remarks, for DOE/LLNL Symposium
on Explosion Source Phenomena, March 14--16, 1989.
G. Richards, Nuclear Test Ban Treaties and Seismic Monitoring of
Underground Nuclear Explosions: an Overview of Historical, Technical, and
Recent Political Issues, 73 pages, 1990.
G. Richards, Peace. 1990
G. Richards, Management Plan for the Joint Seismic Program (US -- USSR),
G. Richards, D. A. Anderson and D. W. Simpson, A Survey of Blasting
Activity in the United States. Scientific report to AFPL, May 1991.
G. Richards and Won-Young Kim, Preliminary Assessment of Newly Available
Digital Seismic Data from Kazakhstan. Scientific report to AFPL, September
G. Richards, How can the Operation of Thousands of Seismic Stations
(Carried out by Hundreds of Institutions in Tens of Countries) best be focussed on Discrimination Research? Invited lecture
(written as 9 pages) for DARPA/Air Force annual meeting on Seismic
Verification (October 1991).
Richards, W.-Y. Kim, D.W. Simpson, and G.
Ekström, Chemical Explosions and the Discrimination Problem,
PL-TR-91-2285, final technical report to Phillips Laboratory, 26 November
G. Richards and Göran Ekström, Report of a visit
to the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory, circa
1991. Appendix: memo to file, on information about Borovoye.
Kim, P. G. Richards and Jinghua Shi, Studies of
RMS Lg Data. July 1992.
G. Richards. SPOT picks of nuclear explosion locations on the Balapan test site, near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan
(these picks were in a report to AFPL, and also on the CD "Nuclear
Explosion Database Volume 1: Balapan"
compiled by Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., S-CUBED Division, January 1993.
G. Richards, How can seismology best contribute to the prevention of a
proliferation of nuclear weapons? (19 pages, July 1993).
Richards, W.-Y. Kim and G. Ekström, RMS Lg
studies of underground nuclear explosions in the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.,
PL-TR-93-2227, final technical report to Phillips Laboratory, 19 August
1993 includes my papers ##67, 68, 78, plus SPOT picks at Balapan, and Lg
signals recorded in China, and RMS Lg
measurements of Balapan explosions using Borovoye data.
G. Richards, Verification of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty -- the
Potential Contribution of Seismological Methods (13 pages, Fall 1993).
- Paul G.
Richards, Seismicity induced by Nuclear Explosions, excerpt from technical
report PL-TR-93-2227, 1993.
G. Richards, A role of IRIS in public policy, in IRIS 2000, proposal to NSF, written in Spring 1995 and
circulated later in 1995.
G. Richards and Won-Young Kim, The merits of digital versus analog methods
of recording seismic motion, paper in Proceeding Volume of the first China
-- Korea workshop on digital seismology, Seoul, S. Korea, January 1996.
- Vitaly I. Khalturin, Tatyana
G. Rautian, Paul G. Richards, and Won-Young Kim,
Evaluation of Chemical Explosions and Methods of Discrimination for
Practical Seismic Monitoring of a CTBT, AFRL-VS-HA-TR-98-0012, final
report, Dec 1997.
F. Emanov, Albina G. Filina, Vitaly I. Khalturin, Won-Young Kim and Paul G. Richards,
Available data on large chemical explosions east of Novosibirsk,
Proceedings, 1st workshop on IMS Location Calibration, Oslo, Norway 12
14 January 1999.
G. Richards, Accurate estimates of the absolute location of underground
nuclear tests at the northern Novaya Zemlya Test Site, Proceedings, 2nd
Workshop on IMS Location Calibration, Oslo, Norway 20 - - 24 March 2000.
G. Richards, A plan for seismic location calibration of 30 IMS stations in
Eastern Asia, Proceedings, 2nd Workshop on IMS
Location Calibration, Oslo, Norway 20 24 March 2000.
G. Richards, Answers to questions on correlation analysis, submitted to
the Bureau of Arms Control, US Dept. of State, June 28, 2000.
Kim, Paul G. Richards, Vitaly V. Adushkin, and Vladimir Ovtchinnikov,
Borovoye digital seismogram archive for
underground nuclear tests during 1966 1996, technical report, April
- W.-Y. Kim, G. L. Vsevolozhsky,
T. L. Mulder, and P. G. Richards, Practical analysis of seismic activity
in Northwestern China during September 4 -- 7, 1995, technical report
sponsored by AFOSR.
G. Richards, Comparison of teleseismic body-wave magnitudes published by
the Prototype International Data Centre, the U.S. Geological Survey, and
the International Seismological Centre, part of a Final Report to DTRA,
G. Richards, Seismology and CTBT Verification, Background Paper #4, for
Stanford Roundtable Discussion on the CTBT, July 19, 2000.
G. Richards, Earth Structure Near Core Boundaries, GeoDynamics
meeting, London, Ontario, September 2-5, 1979.
- Liping Gao and Paul G.
Richards, Studies of Earthquakes On and Near the Lop Nor, China, Nuclear
Test Site , Annual DOD Seismic Research Review,
1994 or 1995.
- Vitaly I. Khalturin, Paul X.
Richards, Won-Young Kim, Analysis of the Nilore,
Pakistan, seimograms of the Indian nuclear
explosions of 1998 May 11, Annual DOD Seismic Research Review, 1998.
- Vitaly I. Khalturin,
Won-Young Kim, and Paul G. Richards, Magnitude Distributions of Mine-Blasting
Activity, and Characteristics of Regional Seismograms at Distances in the
Rang 680-800 km, DOD Seismic Research Review, ~1999.
G. Richards, Statement by PGR, as a candidate for election to the Board of
Directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science,
G. Richards, John Armbruster, Valeriu Burlacu, Vernon F.
Cormier, Mark D. Fisk, Vitaly I. Khalturin, Won-Young Kim, Igor B. Morozov,
Elena A. Morozova, Chandan
K. Saikia, David Schaff, Anastasia Stroujkova, and Felix Waldhauser, Seismic Location
Calibration for 30 International Monitoring System Stations in Eastern
Asia: Final Results, DOD/DOE Seismic Research Review, Tucson, 2003.
Kim, David P. Schaff, Jian Zhang, Felix Waldhouser, and Paul G. Richards, Evaluation of
Cross-Correlation Methods on a Massive Scale for Accurate Relocation of
Seismic Events, DOD/DOE Seismic Research Review, Orlando, September 2004.
G. Rautian, Vitaly I. Khalturin, W. Scott Phillips, and Paul G. Richards,
Explosion Source Phenomena using Soviet Test Era Waveform Data, DOD/DOE
Seismic Research Review, Orlando, September 2004.
G. Richards, Won-Young Kim, Mike Hagerty, Vitaly Khalturin, Tatyana G.
Rautian, and Pavel Martysevich, Integrated Study of Seismic and Infrasonic
Signals from Sources in Southern Siberia, Eastern Kazakhstan and Western
China, Final Report DTRA (Defense Threat Reduction Agency), July 2004.
G. Richards, Seismicity in the vicinity of the Lop Nor test site, Xinjiang
Provice, China, Appendix to a technical report I
wrote in about 1995.
In general: Interests in quantitative seismology including development and
application of theoretical (“synthetic”) seismograms to the interpretation of
observations; and improvements in methods to
characterize seismicity (better detections, and better estimation of locations,
moment tensors, and fault orientation and slip). Interests in seismic monitoring for nuclear
explosions, and in the development of precision methods applied to large waveform
archives for broad improvements in bulletins of seismicity.
More specifically: Investigation of microearthquakes along the San Andreas; techniques of
digital data analysis; theoretical study of diffraction phenomena in model
experiments; use of potentials for elastic displacement in heterogeneous media;
study of body waves near the Earth's core shadow boundary — their amplitudes,
dispersion, and effective shadow shift; study of elastic wave propagation in
spherically symmetric media; calculation of reflection coefficients for various
heterogeneities, and deductions (from published data on precursors to P'P') for structure in the upper mantle;
use of Cagniard-de Hoop methods, for moving sources,
to study ocean-bottom earthquakes; representation theorems for the solution of
motion due to faulting in a heterogeneous elastic medium; development of
elastic wave solutions in media with second-order discontinuities; derivation
and evaluation of an exact solution for dynamic effects of a growing elliptical
shear crack, for which shear stress is a constant times the normal stress;
relations between particle velocity on a fault surface, and stress drop;
calculation of frequency-dependent effects in body waves passing through the
Earth's core, and deductions for structure in the lowermost mantle; source
theory for earthquakes; tunnelling of seismic body
waves; demonstration, from data on the Blue Mountain Lake swarm of 1971, that
the P-wave velocity is fluctuating more than the S-wave velocity, and in a
manner suggesting control by dilatancy; analysis of
reflection seismograms, with relevance to prospecting; investigation of
temperature rise, on a fault surface undergoing earthquake motions; derivation
of a closed-form analytic solution for the surface of a half-space subjected to
a surface force; determination of the slip function for faulting in a medium
with given distribution of initial stress and strength; computation of seismic
waves in media composed of inhomogeneous layers, with a correct account of the
effects of attenuation; consistency checks, on measurements of Earth strain;
analysis of the apparent Q resulting from scattering when a seismic wave
propagates many wavelengths through a medium with inhomogeneity on all spatial
scales; estimation of station magnitude bias; numerical methods (especially the
pseudo-spectral method) for studying elastic and anelastic
wave propagation in 3-D; analytical methods for seismic wave propagation in 3-D
structures composed of homogeneous layers with randomly-dipping interfaces;
seismic methods for studying underground nuclear explosions (detection
capability and yield estimation); Earth noise at high frequency; study of
charge sizes and size distribution of chemical explosions; discrimination
between large chemical and small nuclear explosions; tectonic release from
underground nuclear explosions; stability of RMS Lg amplitudes, and their use for estimating yields of underground
explosions; asymptotic structure of normal modes, using uniform asymptotic
theory; earthquakes induced by nuclear explosions, in the context of on-site
inspection of a suspicious event under a CTBT; studies of small earthquakes and
small explosions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan; uses of spectral
ratios to discriminate between small earthquakes and small explosions from
signals recorded at regional distances; interpretation of far-field and
intermediate-field P-waves from deep
earthquakes; "near-field" deformation seen in broadband seismograms;
discovery of seismological evidence for differential rotation of the Earth's
inner core; empirical methods to improve estimates of event location using
ground truth data to obtain corrected regional travel times; uses of earthquake
and explosion doublets for precision studies of inner core rotation and
evaluation of catalog precision. Modern methods of seismic event location
applied on a global scale.