Unit 1: About Spatial Thinking

Eliot, J., & Smith, I. M. (1983). An international directory of spatial tests. Windsor, England: NFER-Nelson.

Hegarty, M., Montello, D. R., Richardson, A. E., Ishikawa, T., & Lovelace, K. (2004). Spatial abilities at different scales: Individual differences in aptitude-test performance and spatial-layout learning. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Hurlbut, C. S., Jr. (1971). Dana’s manual of mineralogy (18th ed.). New York: Wiley.

Ishikawa, T. (2002). Spatial knowledge acquisition in the environment: The integration of separately learned places and the development of metric knowledge. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Kail, R., & Park, Y. (1990). Impact of practice on speeded mental rotation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 49, 227-244.

Kali, Y., & Orion, N. (1996). Spatial abilities of high-school students in the perception of geologic structures. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33, 369-391.

Kyllonen, P. C., Lohman, D. F., & Snow, R. E. (1984). Effects of aptitudes, strategy training, and task facets on spatial task performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 130-145.

McBurney, D. H., Gaulin, S. J. C., Devineni, T., & Adams, C. (1997). Superior spatial memory of women: Stronger evidence for the gathering hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 18, 165-174.

McGeary, D., & Plummer, C. C. (1998). Physical geology: Earth revealed (3rd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Owen, C., Pirie, D., & Draper, G. (2001). Earth lab: Exploring the earth sciences. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1967). The child’s conception of space (F. J. Langdon & J. L. Lunzer, Trans.). New York: Norton. (Original work published 1948)

Ramsay, J. G., & Huber, M. I. (1987). The techniques of modern structural geology: Vol. 2. Folds and fractures. London: Academic Press.

Silverman, I., & Eals, M. (1992). Sex differences in spatial abilities: Evolutionary theory and data. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 533-549). New York: Oxford University Press.

Tarbuck, E. J., & Lutgens, F. K. (1994). Earth science (7th ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Vandenberg, S. G., & Kuse, A. R. (1978). Mental rotations, a group test of three-dimensional spatial visualization. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 47, 599-604.

Vasta, R., Knott, J. A., & Gaze, C. E. (1996). Can spatial training erase the gender differences on the water-level task? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 549-567.

Winchester, S. (2001). The map that changed the world: William Smith and the birth of modern geology. New York: HarperCollins.

Witkin, H. A. (1950). Individual diferences in ease of perception of embedded figures. Journal of Personality, 19, 1-15.

Unit 2: Using Maps in the Field

Liben, L. S., & Downs, R. M. (1989). Understanding maps as symbols: The development of map concepts in children. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 22, pp. 145-201). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Liben, L. S., & Downs, R. M. (1993). Understanding person-space-map relations: Cartographic and developmental perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 29, 739-752.

Liben, L. S., Kastens, K. A., & Stevenson, L. M. (2002). Real-world knowledge through real-world maps: A developmental guide for navigating the educational terrain. Developmental Review, 22, 267-322.

Unit 3: Topographic Maps

Gilhooly, K. J., Wood, M., Kinnear, P. R., & Green, C. (1988). Skill in map reading and memory for maps. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40A, 87-107.

Eley, M. G. (1991). Selective encoding in the interpretation of topographic maps. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5, 403-422.

Montello, D. R., Sullivan, C. N., & Pick, H. L., Jr. (1994). Recall memory for topographic maps and natural terrain: Effects of experience and task performance. Cartographica, 31, 18-36.

Pick, H. L., Heinrichs, M. R., Montello, D. R., Smith, K., Sullivan, C. N., & Thompson, W. B. (1995). Topographic map reading. In P. A. Hancock, J. M. Flach, J. Caird, & K. J. Vicente (Eds.), Local applications of the ecological approach to human-machine systems (pp. 255-284). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Potash, L. M., Farrell, J. P., & Jeffrey, T. (1978). A technique for assessing map relief legibility. Cartographic Journal, 15, 28-35.

Thorndyke, P.W., & Stasz, C. (1980). Individual differences in procedures for knowledge aquisition from maps. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 137-175.

United States Military Academy, Department of Earth, Space, and Graphic Sciences (Scovel, J. L., McCormack, J. C., O'Brien, J., & Chapman, R. B.) (1965). Atlas of Landforms. New York: Wiley.

Unit 4: 3-D Phenomena

Kali, Y., & Orion, N. (1996). Spatial abilities of high-school students in the perception of geologic structures. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33, 369-391.

Mayer, R. E., Mautone, P., & Prothero, W. (2002). Pictorial aids for learning by doing in a multimedia geology simulation game. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 171-185.

Piburn, M. D., Reynolds, S. J., Leedy, D. E., McAuliffe, C. M., Birk, J. P., & Johnson, J. K. (2002). The hidden earth: Visualization of geologic features and their subsurface geometry. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, New Orleans, LA.

Prothero, W. A. (2001). Our dynamic planet (Version 1.60) [Computer software]. Santa Barbara, CA: Regents of University of California (University of California, Santa Barbara, Department of Geological Sciences).

Reynolds, S. J., Piburn, M. D., & Johnson, J. K. (2002). Interactive 3D visualizations of geology creation, use, and assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America, Denver, CO.