Case Studies in Earth & Environmental Science Journalism

Species Introductions


Questions to Ponder and Discuss



Background information: Restoration of Wolves to Yellowstone

author unknown. 1993. The Wildlife Year. Reader's Digest Association Limited, 1993. USA.

Phillips, Michael K., and Douglas W. Smith. 1996. The Wolves of Yellowstone, the Inside Story.

Michael Dregni (Ed.). Voyageur Press, Inc. Stillwater, MN. 1996. selected readings.

Restoration of gray wolves to Yellowstone National Park. Goals of reintroduction policy presented to Congress. June 28, 1989.

Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate. Wolves in Yellowstone National Park. May 23, 1995.


Scientific Papers: Restoration of Wolves to Yellowstone

Cohn, Jeffrey P. 1990. Endangered wolf population increases, planned reintroduction into old range causes controversy. Bioscience. v. 40, p. 628-632. Oct. 1990.

Information on Yellowstone wolf packs, history, current reports. From The Total Yellowstone Page at

Mladenoff, David J., Robert G. Haight, Theodore A. Sickley, and Adrian P. Wydeven. 1997. Causes and implications of species restoration in altered ecosystems. Bioscience. v.47, p. 21-31. Jan. 1997.


Popular Articles: Restoration of Wolves to Yellowstone

Edwards, Diane D. 1987. Recall of the wild wolf. Science News. v. 131, p.378-379. June 13, 1987.

Lancaster, John. 1990. Park study reconsiders wolves. The Washington Post. A, 4:1. May 22, 1990.

Joyce, Christopher. 1990. Yellowstone lets the wolf through the door. New Scientist. v. 126, p. 21. June 2, 1990.

Rember, John. 1990. Return of the Native. Wildlife Conservation. September/October 1990. p. 61-76.

Barnard, Jeff. 1992. Wildlife experts try to discover why wolf's at the door. Chicago Tribune Evening sec. 2:5. Nov 16, 1992.

Mitchell, John G. 1994. Uncle Sam's undeclared war against wildlife. Wildlife Conservation. September/October 1994. p. 20-31.

Babbit, Bruce. 1994. The fierce green fire. Audubon. v. 96, p.120. Sept/Oct 1994.

author unknown. 1994. Suit may stall Yellowstone wolves. Science. v. 266, p. 1147. Nov. 18, 1994.

Kisling, Jack. 1994. America, land of many sheep. Denver Post. B, 11:1. Dec. 1, 1994.

Keefe, Mike. 1994. Editorial cartoon. Denver Post. B, 14:3. Dec. 16, 1994.

Keefe, Mike. 1995. Editorial cartoon. USA Today. A, 10:3. Jan. 17, 1995.

Miniclier, Kit. 1995. Wolf cost doubles. Denver Post. B, 1:5. Jan. 26, 1995.

Knickerbocker, Brad. 1995. The changing status of the predator in the American west. The Christian Science Monitor. p. 10. Jan. 31, 1995.

author unknown. 1995. Wolf bounty bill vetoed. New York Times. A, 16:4. Feb. 28, 1995.

Sloan, Gene. 1995. Wolves don't prey on humans. USA Today. D, 5:2. Apr. 7, 1995.

author unknown. 1995. Rancher worries wolf got horse. Denver Post. C, 7:5. Apr. 30, 1995.

Stevens, William K. 1995. Science Times: Triumph and loss as wolves return to Yellowstone. New York Times. C, 1:4. Sep. 12, 1995.

Miniclier, Kit. 1996. Wolf project '96 a howling success. Denver Post. B, 1:2. Jan. 24, 1996.

author unknown. 1996. US agents kill wayward Yellowstone wolf. Denver Post. B, 5:3. Feb. 7, 1996.

author unknown. 1996. Yellowstone wolf is killed. New York Times. C, 5:1. Apr. 2, 1996.

Sahagun, Louis. 1996. Will the wolf survive? Yes, biologists find. Los Angeles Times. A, 1:3. Sept. 15, 1996.

DiSilvestro, Roger. 1996. No longer top dog. National Wildlife. v. 34, p. 14-23. Oct./Nov. 1996.

O'Hare, Kate. 1996. Controversy runs with the wolves of Yellowstone. Chicago Tribune. 11, 5:1. Nov. 3, 1996.

author unknown. 1997. Park wolf study is urged. New York Times. A, 15:3, Jan. 29, 1997.

Lloyd, Jillian. 1997. Wolves as neighbors: Howls of praise and fear. Christian Science Monitor. Feb. 13, 1997.

Steven, William K. 1997. Wolves may reintroduce themselves to east. New York Times. C, 1:1. March 4, 1997.

Potter, John. editorial cartoons from The Billings Gazette, unknown dates and issues. from The Wolves of Yellowstone, the Inside Story. 1996.


Background information: Introduction of exotics

Murphy, Jamie. 1986. A scourge of alien insects. Time. v. 128, p. 69 il. Sept. 8, 1986.

Berenbaum, May. 1992. Invaded by insects. New York Times. 1:2. p.19. July 11, 1992.

Ruesink, Jennifer L., Ingrid M. Parker, Martha J. Groom, and Peter M. Kareiva. 1995. Reducing the risks of nonindigenous species introductions. Bioscience. v. 45, July/August 1995.

Jenkins, Peter T. 1996. Free trade and exotic species introductions. Conservation Biology. v. 10, p. 300-2 bibl il. Feb. 1996.

Baskin, Yvonne. 1996. Curbing undesirable invaders (the Norway/United Nations Conference on Alien Species). Bioscience. v. 46, no. 10, p. 732-6 il. Nov. 1996.

Allen, Scott. 1996. Exotic species have power to reshape American landscape. The Plain Dealer. p. 27A. Dec. 8, 1996.


Background information: The Imported Fire Ant

Vinson, S. Bradleigh. 1994. Impact of the invasion of Solenopsis Invicta (Buren) on Native Food Webs. In: Exotic Ants: Biology, Impact, and Contol of Introduced Species. David F. Williams (Ed.). Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 240-251.

Williams, David F. 1994. Control of the introduced pest Solenopsis Invicta in the United States. In: Exotic Ants: Biology, Impact, and Control of Introduced Species. (Ed.). Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 282-291.

Mann, Charles C. 1994. Fire ants parlay their queens into a threat to biodiversity. Science. v. 263, p.1560-1561. Mar. 18, 1994.

Lockley, Timothy C. 1996. Imported Fire Ants. From the IPM World Textbook Homepage.


Scientific Papers: The Imported Fire Ant

Feener, Donald H., Jr. 1981. Competition between ant species: outcome controlled by parasitic flies. Science. v. 214, p. 815-817. Nov. 13, 1981.

Brownlee, Evelyn A. 1993. The Imported Fire Ant: January 1988 - December 1992. National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD, pp. 1-28.

deSchazo, Richard D., Brian T. Butcher, and W.A. Banks. 1990. Reactions to the stings of imported fire ants. The New England Journal of Medicine. v. 323, p. 462-6. Aug. 16, 1990.

Porter, Sanford D. and Dolores A. Savignano. 1990. Invasion of polygyne fire ants decimates native ants and disrupts arthropod community. Ecology. v. 71, no. 6, pp. 2095-2106. December 1990.

Porter, Sanford D. 1993. Stability of polygyne and monogyne fire ant populations (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis invictaI) in the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology. v.86, pp. 1344. October 1993.

Jusino-Atresino, Rafael and Sherman A. Philips, Jr. 1994. Impact of red imported fire ants on the ant fauna of Texas. In: Exotic Ants: Biology, Impact and Control of Introduced Species. David F. Williams (Ed.). Westview Press, Boulder, CO. pp. 259-267.

Wojcik, Daniel P. 1994. Impact of the red imported fire ant on native ant species in Florida. In: Exotic Ants: Biology, Impact and Control of Introduced Species. David F. Williams (Ed.). Westview Press, Boulder, CO. pp. 268-281.

Ross, Kenneth G, Edward L. Vargo, and Laurent Keller. 1996. Social evolution in a new environment: the case of introduced fire ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences of the United States of America. v. 93, pp. 3021-3025. April 1996.


Popular Articles: The Imported Fire Ant

Revkin, Andrew C. 1989. March of the fire ants. Discover. v. 10, pp. 70-76. March 1989.

Zachariah, G.L. 1989. Research in controlling fire ants deserves strong support. St. Petersburg Times. Sec Tampa, p. 2. July 21, 1989.

Conniff, Richard. 1990. You never know what the fire ant is going to do next. Smithsonian. v. 21, p. 48-52+. July 1990.

author unknown. 1990. Trying to conquer the conquering ant. Newsweek. v. 116, p.31. Sept. 24, 1990.

Webster, Guy. 1993. State declares war on fire ants: Landscaper's plants apparently causes infestation. The Arizona Republic. Valley and State, p.1. April 24, 1993.

Bailey, Jerry. 1993. Whither yesteryear's horned toads? The Wall Street Journal. A, 15:1. Aug. 16, 1993.

Lawson-Beerman, Anne. 1993. The ant that's all-fired awful. The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. P:4. Sept. 3, 1993.

Ricks, Delthia. 1994. Invasion of the Superbugs: 3 New Neighbors. The Orlando Sentinel. Insight:G7. April 10, 1994.

Teachey, Lisa. 1994. Living with the pesky fire ant is no picnic. The Houston Chronicle. Discovery:10. April 18, 1994.

Brady, Steve. 1994. Get rid of unruly fire ants to prevent painful attacks. The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. J:5. June 15, 1994.

Grisham, Julie. 1994. Attack of the fire ant. Bioscience. v. 44, p. 587-90. October 1994.

Dawson, Bill. 1994. Scientists tell a cautionary tale of 2 species: Fire ants thriving, horned lizard fails. The Houston Chronicle. Discovery:7. November 14, 1994.

Raloff, J. 1994. When this fly arrives, ants' heads roll. Science News. v. 146, p.358. Nov. 26, 1994.

Marston, Wendy. 1995. Heads will roll: a diabolical plot for the demise of the fire ant. The Sciences. v. 35, p. 11. May/June 1995.

Lemonick, Michael D. 1995. Ants in our pants. Time. v. 145, p. 57. June 5, 1995.

Webster, Guy. 1995. Back off, killer bees: fire ants chomping to get here. The Arizona Republic. Valley and State: B1. June 12, 1995.

Schmidt, Karen. 1995. A new ant on the block. New Scientist. v. 148, p. 28-31. Nov. 4, 1995.

Collins, Homer. 1996. The furor over fire ants. American Nurseryman. Feb. 15, 1996.

Irwin, Aisling. 1996. One tiny step in the evolution of an ant. The Daily Telegraph. p. 19. October 17, 1996.

Norvell, Scott. 1996. Fire ants on the march. Reader's Digest US Edition. v. 149, n. 895, p. 92-96. Nov. 1996.


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