The linear properties of an electromagnetic drift-wave model are examined. The linear system is non-normal in that its eigenvectors are not orthogonal with respect to the energy inner product. The non-normality of the linear evolution operator can lead to enhanced finite-time growth rates compared to modal growth rates. Previous work with an electrostatic drift-wave model found that nonmodal behavior is important in the hydrodynamic limit. Here, similar behavior is seen in the hydrodynamic regime even with the addition of magnetic fluctuations. However, unlike the results for the electrostatic drift-wave model, nonmodal behavior is also important in the adiabatic regime with moderate to strong magnetic fluctuations. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. [S1070-664X(00)02707-5].
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