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Efflorescent crusts consisting predominantly of the sodium carbonate minerals trona (Na2CO3.NaHCO3.2H(2)O) with minor thermonatrite (Na2CO3.H2O) are commonly developed on less vegetated portions of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. Being highly soluble, the Presence of trona alone explains the high alkalinity of the soil (PH 10.5). Occasional flooding followed by fast evaporation in this extensive flood plain is a possible cause of the formation of this mineral. Carbonate build-up will have a major impact on the Gangetic ecosystem in the future, causing declining bioproductivity.
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