Offshore and onshore stratigraphic studies, together with high-resolution shallow seismic reflection profiling and multibeam bathymetric mapping, were carried out in the western and central part of the Izmit Gulf. These studies indicate that the Izmit Gulf was a lacustrine environment as part of the Marmara 'Lake' during the late glaciation and early deglaciation until similar to12 kyr BP, when the Marmara Basin was inundated by the Mediterranean waters. Correlation of C-14-dated onshore and offshore stratigraphic units in the Western Izmit Gulf indicates that generally coarse late glacial sediments overlie a marked erosional surface formed during the low water level of the Marmara 'Lake'. These coarse sediments are succeeded by 10.4-7 kyr BP old transgressive, and by late Holocene post-transgression mud units. The bathymetry and sub-bottom Chirp profiles clearly show that the paleoshoreline of the Gulf was located at -85 m, having been controlled by the bedrock sill depth of the Canakkale Strait. Another paleoshoreline observed at -65 m on the northern margin of the Western Izmit and Karamursel basins was probably formed during the Younger Dryas sea-level stillstand. The shelf areas during this time were colonized by bioherms, which were subsequently drowned and disappeared after a further rise of the sea level. The presence of a -65 in marine paleoshoreline in the Karamursel Basin indicates that the sill restricting this basin to the west was much deeper than its present -55 in level and was located further south. The Golcuk Basin, restricted by a -38 in sill to its west, was probably not flooded by marine waters until similar to9 kyr BP. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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