Heat Flow values, determined from temperature logs and estimates of thermal conductivity from geophysical logs range from 23 to 37 mW/m2 from 800 to 2500 m depth in the Toa Baja scientific drillhole on the north, central coast of Puerto Rico. Near the target seismic reflector at the base of the well, an active hydrothermal system was encountered in which heat flow of up to 90 mW/m2 was found in a mineralized zone beneath a volcanic sill or flow. The heat flow then dropped to 50 mW/m2 beneath this subhorizontal flow zone. The mining of heat from downdip is proposed to account for this thermal anomaly, as well as the scatter in the heat flow determined from the few other wells drilled into Puerto Rico. The time-temperature history of the well indicates that Eocene volcaniclastics of the lower 2 km were deposited into a geothermal gradient of 60-degrees-C/km north of an active arc (heat flow estimated to have been 120-180 mW/m2). Uplift, erosion and cooling occurred between 40 and 30 Ma. Reburial and deposition of Oligocene-Miocene Limestones produced the present-day geothermal gradient of 15-degrees-C/km (heat flow of 30-50 mW/m2). Based upon comparisons with slab cooling models, the crustal thickness beneath Puerto Rico is estimated to be closer to continental than oceanic.
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