Ten of 11 cell lines, recently established from the snout (MS-SN), periorbital soft tissue (MS-EY), liver (MS-LV), kidney (MS-KD), lung (MS-LG), spleen (MS-SP), heart (MS-HT), thyroid (MS-TY), brain (MS-BR) and urinary bladder (MS-UB) of a juvenile Hawaiian monk seal Monachus schauinslandi, were evaluated in vitro for their susceptibility to 5 mammalian viruses: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), reovirus type 3 (Reo-3), poliovirus type 1 (Polio1) and vaccinia virus (Vac); 5 fish viruses: channel catfish herpesvirus (CCV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), fish rhabdovirus carpio (RC) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV); and 2 marine mammal morbilliviruses: phocine distemper virus (PDV) and dolphin distemper virus (DMV). Four well-established continuous cell-lines of nonhuman primate (Vero) and fish (EPC, CHSE-214 and BB) origin served as controls to standardize the virus infectivity assays. Virus yields were quantified as 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) ml(-1) on Day 7 post-inoculation. Results of the viral challenge assays revealed that the monk seal cell lines shared a similar pattern of susceptibility to the mammalian viruses. Despite their different tissue origins, all monk seal cells were sensitive to HSV-1, Vac, VSV and Reo-3, but were refractory to Polio-1. A characteristic viral-induced cytopathic effect was noted with VSV and Reo-3, and distinct plaques were observed for HSV-1 and Vac. Monk seal cell lines were also susceptible to PDV and DMV, 2 morbilliviruses isolated from seals and dolphins, respectively. By contrast, these cell lines were generally resistant to VHSV, IHNV and IPNV, with varying susceptibility to RC and CCV. The wide range of viral susceptibility of these monk seal cell lines suggests their potential value in studying viruses of monk seals and other marine mammals.
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