Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are considered a major public health problem, globally. In particular, increasing STI rates have been documented throughout eastern Europe and central Asia. The Russian Federation and adjacent countries have, traditionally, managed STIs on an aetiological basis. This approach is expensive in terms of laboratory costs and it may lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. To overcome the limitations of the aetiological management of STIs, the World Health Organization (WHO) has placed an increased emphasis on integrated care using syndromic management at the primary care level, especially in developing countries. This article reviews the current aetiology of STIs in Estonia, an eastern European country bordering the Baltic Sea and formerly a part of the Soviet Union, with the aim of defining whether infection with Trichomonas vaginalis is common enough to include its management in a syndromic management protocol. The use of syndromic management, in general, is also discussed.
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