We present a comprehensive geochemical data set for the most recent volcanics from the Mariana Islands, which provides new constraints on the timing and nature of fluxes from the subducting slab, The lavas display many features typical of island are volcanics, with all samples showing large negative niobium anomalies and enrichments in alkaline earth elements and lead (e.g., high Ba/La and Pb/Ce). Importantly, many of these key ratios correlate with a large range in U-238 excesses, (U-238/Th-230) = 0.97-1.56. Geochemical features show island to island variations; lavas from Guguan have the largest U-238-excesses, Pb/Ce and Ba/La ratios, while Agrigan lavas have small U-238 excesses, the least radiogenic Nd-143/Nd-144, and the largest negative cerium and niobium anomalies. These highly systematic variations enable two discrete slab additions to the subarc mantle to be identified. The geochemical features of the Agrigan lavas are most consistent with a dominant subducted sediment contribution. The added sedimentary component is not identical to bulk subducted sediment and notably shows a marked enrichment of Th relative to Nb. This is most readily explained by melt fractionation of the sediment with residual rutile and transfer of sedimentary material as a melt phase. For most of the highly incompatible elements, the sedimentary contribution dominates the total elemental budgets of the lavas. The characteristics best exemplified by the Guguan lavas are attributed to a slab-derived aqueous fluid phase, and Pb and Sr isotope compositions point toward the subducted, altered oceanic crust as a source of this fluid. Variable addition of the sedimentary component, but near-constant aqueous fluid flux along are strike, can create the compositional trends observed in the Mariana lavas. High field strength element ratios (Ta/Nb and Zr/Nb) of the sediment poor Guguan lavas are higher than those of most mid-oceanic ridge basalts and suggest a highly depleted subarc mantle prior to any slab additions. The U-238-(230)Tn systematics indicate >350 kyr between sediment and mantle melting but <30 kyr between slab dehydration and eruption of the lavas. This necessitates rapid magma migration rates and suggests that the aqueous fluid itself may trigger major mantle melting.
Xj831Times Cited:264Cited References Count:150