Enso Signals in Global Upper-Ocean Temperature

Publication Status is "Submitted" Or "In Press: 
LDEO Publication: 
Publication Type: 
Year of Publication: 
Journal Title: 
Journal of Physical Oceanography
Journal Date: 
Place Published: 
Tertiary Title: 
Section / Start page: 
ISBN Number: 
ISSN Number: 
Short Title: 
Accession Number: 
LDEO Publication Number: 
Call Number: 

The time-space evolution of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in sea surface temperature (SST) and heat storage of the upper 400 m (HS400) for the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans is investigated for 13 years (1979-1991). EOF and rotated EOF (Varimax or VRX) analyses are performed using the time series of normalized anomalies for each ocean separately and then for the global ocean. In the Pacific and Indian Oceans, the two dominant EOF modes for both SST and HS400 are associated with ENSO. For SST they account for 49% of the total variance in each ocean, while for HS400 they account for over 35% of the total variance in each ocean. In the Pacific Ocean, the first EOF modes for SST and HS400 display peak values during spring-summer of 1983 and 1987. They are characterized by maximum positive loadings (or warmer temperature) in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean straddling the equator. These modes represent the peak phase of El Nino off the west coast of South America. The second modes for SST and HS400 are precursor modes with maximum positive loadings in the western and central Pacific Ocean both on and off the equator. The peak values in HS400 second mode lead peak values in HS400 first mode by 6-9 months. Taken together, SST and HS400 first two modes are associated with slow equatorial and eastward propagation of ENSO signals, more clearly though in HS400 than in the SST. In the Indian Ocean, the dominant EOF modes for SST display peak values in summer-fall of 1983 and summer of 1987, while peak values for HS400 are found during fall of 1982 and summer of 1987. Corresponding positive SST loadings are found in the central Indian Ocean while positive HS400 loadings are found in the western Indian Ocean. Maximum values are both straddling the equator. As in the Pacific Ocean, the second EOF modes for SST and HS400 in the Indian Ocean are precursor modes to the first modes. They occur 9-15 months earlier, with warmer SST in the Arabian Sea, colder SST northwest of Australia, and colder HS400 in the vicinity of the boreal winter ITCZ. Taken together, these two modes suggest a slow equatorial and eastward propagation of ENSO signals in SST and HS400, very similar to those in the Pacific Ocean. This propagation can be seen extending eastward south of Indonesia and on into the Timor Sea. There the anomalies have the same sign as the anomalies found in the Philippine and Coral Seas in the western tropical Pacific Ocean during the peak phase of El Nino. In the Atlantic Ocean, ENSO is represented by the third SST VRX mode but not at all in HS400. As such, the Atlantic ENSO signal at the equator is a passive response to a globally perturbed atmosphere. It lags by approximately 18 months the dominant Pacific ENSO mode.


Part 1Re588Times Cited:114Cited References Count:41