Oceanographic Data beneath South Pacific Sea Ice
N.B. Palmer Cruise 9405, September-October 1994
    This report includes the primary ocean station data collected in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean during cruise 9405 of the Nathaniel B. Palmer. The cruise began on 10 September 1994, in Punta Arenas, Chile and ended on 16 October in Lyttleton, New Zealand (Hellmer et al. 1995).  Here we describe data acquisition and reduction procedures for the vertical profiling of conductivity - temperature - depth (CTD) and dissolved oxygen, and the processing of water samples for salinity, oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons. All CTD stations were occupied in the late winter/early spring sea ice field, in a zonal band extending from 65-72°S (Figure).  Originally intended as a winter reoccupation of the stations and track of NBP 9402 (Jacobs et al. 1994; Giulivi & Jacobs 1997), the work was subsequently combined with the second of two cruises focusing on sea ice properties (Jeffries et al. 1995). In addition, the sea ice and its snow cover effectively limited this cruise to the region north of the Antarctic continental shelf. Nevertheless, 16 deep stations sampled on cruise 9402 and on World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) lines S4 and P19S were revisited.  The overall project objective was to obtain the first modern measurements in this largely unsampled region, at its seasonal extremes, in order to better understand the large-scale stratification and circulation, and ice-ocean interactions.
Figure Distribution of CTD stations taken during cruise NP9405.Closed circles indicate the locations of casts where water samples were taken. The bottom bathymetry in meters is taken from the Etopo-5 data set.
Giulivi, CF, SS Jacobs (1997) Oceanographic Data in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas, N.B. Palmer Cruise 9402, February-March  1994. Tech Rep LDEO-97-3, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, 330 pp.
Hellmer, HH, SS Jacobs, SW Rock, AL Belem (1995) Late winter under the South Pacific sea ice.Ant J of the U.S., 30(5), 114-115.
Jacobs SS, HH Hellmer, P Schlosser, WM Smethie (1994) An Oceanographic expedition to the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas. Antarct J of the US 29(5) 109-111.
Jeffries, MO, R Jana, S Li, S McCullars (1995) Sea ice and snow thickness distributions in late winter 1993 and 1994 in the Ross, Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas.Ant J of the US, 30 (1-4), 18-21.
The data have been archived at the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) under accession number 0000481.
To obtain the data, you can use the NODC archive web site or you can contact: claudiag@ldeo.columbia.edu or sjacobs@ldeo.columbia.edu.
This  research was funded by the Division of  Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation, by the Department of Energy and by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration