Overview Publications

  • The North Atlantic Oscillation Climate Significance and Environmental Impacts, J.W. Hurrell, Y. Kushnir, G. Ottersen, and M. Visbeck (Eds), Geophysical Monograph Series, 134, 2003.

  • David Stephenson's Webpage

    Selected Publications

    Alexander, M. A., and C. Deser, 1995: A mechanism for the recurrence of winter time midlatitude SST anomalies. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25, 122-137.

    Appenzeller, C., T. F. Stocker and M. Anklin, 1998a: North Atlantic oscillation dynamics recorded in Greenland ice cores. Science, 282, 446-449.

    Appenzeller, C., J. Schwander, S. Sommer, and T. F. Stocker, 1998b: The North Atlantic oscillation and its imprint on precipitation and ice accumulation in Greenland. Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 1939-1942.

    Appenzeller, C., A. K. Weiss, and J. Staehelin, 1999: North Atlantic oscillation modulates total ozone winter trends. Science, submitted.

    Baldwin, M. P., X. Cheng, and T. J. Dunkerton, 1994: Observed correlations between winter-mean tropospheric and stratospheric circulation anomalies. Geophysical Research Letters, 21, 1141-1144.

    Baldwin, M. P., and T. J. Dunkerton, 1999: Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, submitted.

    Barsugli, J. J., and D. S. Battisti, 1998: The basic effects of atmosphere-ocean thermal coupling on midlatitude variability. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 55, 477-493.

    Battisti, D. S., U. S. Bhatt, and M. A. Alexander, 1995: A modeling study of the interannual variability in the wintertime North Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Climate, 8, 3067-3083.

    Bjerknes, J., 1964: Atlantic air-sea interaction. Adv. Geophys., 10, 1-82.

    Capotondi, A., and W. R. Holland, 1997: Decadal variaiblity in an idealized ocean model and its sensitivity to surface boundary conditions. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27, 1072-1093.

    Cavalieri, D. J., P. Gloersen, C. L. Parkinson, J. C .Comiso, and H. J. Zwally, 1997: Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice changes. Science, 278, 1104-1106.

    Cayan, D. R., 1992: Latent and sensible heat flux anomalies over the northern oceans: the connection to monthly atmospheric circulation. Journal of Climate, 5, 354-369.

    Cheng, X., and T. J. Dunkerton, 1995: Orthogonal rotation of spatial patterns derived from singular value decomposition analysis. Journal of Climate, 8, 2631-2643.

    Chapman, W. L., and J. E. Walsh, 1993: Recent variations of sea ice and air temperature in high latitudes. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 74, 33-47.

    Cook, E. R., R. D. D'Arrigo, and K. R. Briffa, 1998: A reconstruction of the North Atlantic Oscillation using tree-ring chronologies from North America and Europe. Holocene, 8, 9-17.

    Corti, S., F. Molteni, and T. N. Palmer, 1999: Signature of recent climate change in frequencies of natural atmospheric circulation regimes. Nature, 398, 799-802.

    Dai, A., I. Y. Fung, and A. D. Del Genio, 1997: Surface observed global land precipitation variations during 1900-88. Journal of Climate, 10, 2943-2962.

    Delworth, T. L., 1996: North Atlantic interannual variability in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Journal of Climate, 9, 2356-2375.

    Deser, C., and M. L. Blackmon, 1993: Surface climate variations over the North Atlantic Ocean during winter: 1900-1993. Journal of Climate, 6, 1743-1753.

    Deser, C., and M. S. Timlin, 1997: Atmosphere-ocean interaction on weekly time scales in the North Atlantic and Pacific. Journal of Climate, 10, 393-408.

    Deser, C., J. E. Walsh, and M. S. Timlin, 1999: Arctic sea ice variability in the context of recent wintertime atmospheric circulation trends. Journal of Climate, in press.

    Dickson, B., 1999: All change in the Arctic. Nature, 397, 389-391.

    Dickson, B., J. Meincke, I. Vassie, J. Jungclaus, and S. Osterhus, 1999: Nature, 397, 243-246.

    Dickson, R. R., J. Lazier, J. Meincke, P. Rhines, and J. Swift, 1996: Long-term co-ordinated changes in the convective activity of the North Atlantic. Prog. Oceanogr., 38, 241-295.

    Frank, P., 1997: Changes in the glacier area in the Austrian Alps between 1973 and 1992 derived from LANDSAT data. MPI report 242, 21 pp.

    Frankignoul, C. and K. Hasselmann, 1977: Stochastic climate models, II. Application to sea-surface temperature variability and thermocline variability. Tellus, 29, 284-305.

    Frankignoul, C., P. Muller, and E. Zorita, 1997: A simple model of the decadal response of the ocean to stochastic wind forcing. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 8, 1533-1546.

    Fromentin, J.-M., and B. Planque, 1996: Calanus and environment in the eastern North Atlantic. II. Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on C. Finmarchicus and C. Helgolandicus. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 134, 111-118.

    Goodman, J., and J. Marshall, 1999: A model of decadal middle-latitude atmosphere-ocean coupled modes. Journal of Climate, 12, 621-641.

    Graf, H.-F., J. Perlwitz, I. Kirchner, and I. Schult, 1995: Recent northern winter climate trends, ozone changes and increased greenhouse gas forcing. Contrib. Phys. Atmos., 68, 233-248.

    Griffies, S. M., and E. Tziperman, 1995: A linear thermohaline oscillator driven by stochastic atmospheric forcing. Journal of Climate, 8, 2440-2453.

    Grîtzner, A., M. Latif, and T. P. Barnett, 1998: A decadal climate cycle in the North Atlantic Ocean as simulated by the ECHO coupled GCM. Journal of Climate, 11, 831-847.

    Hagen, J. O., 1995: Recent trends in the mass balance of glaciers in Scandinavia and Svalbard. Proceedings of the international symposium on environmental research in the Arctic. Watanabe, Okitsugu (Eds.), Tokyo, Japan, National Institute of Polar Research, 343-354.

    Hansen, D. V., and H. F. Bezdek, 1996: On the nature of decadal anomalies in North Atlantic sea surface temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 8749-8758.

    Houghton, R. W., 1996: Subsurface quasi-decadal fluctuations in the North Atlantic. Journal of Climate, 9, 1363-1373.

    Hurrell, J. W., 1995a: Transient eddy forcing of the rotational flow during northern winter. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 52, 2286-2301.

    Hurrell, J. W., 1995b: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation regional temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269, 676-679.

    Hurrell, J. W., 1996: Influence of variations in extratropical wintertime teleconnections on Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 665--668.

    Hurrell, J. W., and H. van Loon, 1997: Decadal variations in climate associated with the North Atlantic oscillation. Climatic Change, 36, 301-326.

    Jin, F. F., 1997: A theory of interdecadal climate variability of the North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system. Journal of Climate, 8, 1821-1835.

    Jones, P. D., T. Jonsson, and D. Wheeler, 1997: Extension of the North Atlantic Oscillation using early instrumental pressure observations from Gibraltar and south-west Iceland. International Journal of Climatology, 17, 1433-1450.

    Kelly, P. M., P. D. Jones, and J. Pengqun, 1996: The spatial response of the climate system to explosive volcanic eruptions. International Journal of Climatology, 16, 537-550.

    Kitoh, A., H. Doide, K. Kodera, S. Yukimoto, and A. Noda, 1996: Interannual variability in the stratospheric-tropospheric circulation in a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM. Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 543-546.

    Kodera, K., 1994: Influence of volcanic eruptions on the troposphere through stratospheric dynamical processes in the Northern Hemisphere winter. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 1273-1282.

    Kodera, K., M. Chiba, H. Koide, A. Kitoh, an dY. Nikaidou, 1996: Interannual variability of the winter stratosphere and troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 74, 365-382.

    Kushnir, Y., 1994: Interdecadal variations in North Atlantic sea surface temperature and associated atmospheric conditions. Journal of Climate, 7, 142-157.

    Kushnir, Y., and I. M. Held, 1996: Equilibrium atmospheric response to North Atlantic SST anomalies. Journal of Climate, 9, 1208-1220.

    Kushnir, Y., V. J. Cardone, J. G. Greenwood, and M. Cane, 1997: On the recent increase in North Atlantic wave heights. Journal of Climate, 10, 2107-2113.

    Latif, M.., and T. Barnett, 1996: Decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America-dynamics and predictability. Journal of Climate, 9, 2407-2423.

    Lau, N.-C. and M. J. Nath , 1991: Variability of the baroclinic and barotropic transient eddy forcing associated with monthly changes in the midlatitude storm tracks. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 48, 2589-2613.

    Lau, N.-C., and M. J. Nath, 1996: The role of the "atmospheric bridge" in linking tropical Pacific ENSO events to extratropical SST anomalies. Journal of Climate, 9, 2036-2057.

    Luterbacher, J., C. Schmutz, D. Gyalistras, E. Xoplaki, and H. Wanner, 1999: Reconstruction of monthly NAO and EU indices back to AD 1675, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2745-2748.

    Mann, M. E., 1999: Large-scale climate variability and connections with the middle east during the past few centuries. Climatic Change, submitted.

    Maslanik, J. A., M C. Serreze, and R. G. Barry, 1996: Recent decreases in Arctic summer ice cover and linkages to atmospheric circulation anomalies. Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 1677-1680.

    McCartney, M. S., R. G. Curry, and H. F. Bezdek, 1996: North Atlantic's transformation pipeline chills and redistributed subtropical water. Oceanus, 39, 19-23.

    McPhee, M. G., T. P. Stanton, J. H. Morison, and D. G. Martinson, 1998: Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 1729-1732.

    Morison, J., K. Aagaard, M. Steele, 1998. Rep. Study Arctic Change Workshop, Rep. No. 8, Arctic System Science, Seattle, WA.

    Nakamura, H., 1996: Year-to-year and interdecadal variability in the activity of intraseasonal fluctuations in the Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 55, 19-32.

    Osborne, T. J., K. R. Briffa, S. F. B. Tett, P. D. Jones, and R. M. Trigo, 1999: Evaluation of the North Atlantic oscillation as simulated by a climate model. Climate Dynamics, in press.

    Parkinson, C. L., D. J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, H. J. Zwally and J. Comiso, 1998: Variability of the Arctic sea ice cover, 1978-1996. Journal of Geophysical Research, in press.

    Perlwitz, J., and H.-F. Graf, 1995: The statistical connection between tropospheric and stratospheric circulation of the Northern Hemisphere in winter. Journal of Climate, 8, 2281-2295.

    Post, E. & Stenseth 1999. Climate change, plant phenology, and northern ungulates. Ecology, 80, 1322-1339.

    Post, E, Forchhammer, M.C. & STENSETH, N.C. 1999. Population ecology and climate change: consequences of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Ecological Bulletins, in press.

    Prisenberg, S. J., I. K. Peterson, S. Narayanan, and J. U. Umoh, 1997: Interaction between atmosphere, ice cover, and ocean off Labrador and Newfoundland from 1962-1992. Can. J. Aquat. Sci., 54, 30-39.

    Rajagopalan, R., Y. Kushnir and Y. M. Tourre, 1998: Observed decadal midlatitude and tropical Atlantic climate variability. Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 3967-3970.

    Randel, W. J., and F. Wu, 1999: Cooling of the Arctic and Antarctic polar stratospheres due to ozone depletion. Journal of Climate, 12, 1467-1479.

    Robertson, A. W., M. Ghil and M. Latif, 1999a: Interdecadal changes in atmospheric low-frequency variability with and without boundary forcing. Journal of Atmospheric Science, submitted.

    Robertson, A. W., C. R. Mechoso and Y.-J. Kim, 1999b: The influence of Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Climate, submitted.

    Rodwell, M. J., D. P. Rowell, and C. K. Folland, 1999: Oceanic forcing of the wintertime North Atlantic oscillation and European climate. Nature, 398, 320-323.

    Saravanan, R., 1998: Atmospheric low frequency variability and its relationship to midlatitude SST variability: studies using the NCAR Climate System Model. Journal of Climate, 11, 1386-1404.

    Saravanan, R., and J. C. McWilliams, 1997: Stochasticity and spatial resonance in interdecadal climate fluctuations. Journal of Climate, 10, 2299-2320.

    Saravanan, R., and J. C. McWilliams, 1998: Advective ocean-atmosphere interaction: an analytical stochastic model with implications for decadal variability. Journal of Climate, 11, 165-188.

    Saravanan, R., G. Danabasoglu, S. C. Doney, and J. C. McWilliams, 1999: Decadal variability and predictability in the midlatitude ocean-atmosphere system. Journal of Climate, submitted.

    Schmutz, C., Luterbacher, J., Gyalistras, D., Xoplaki, E., and H. Wanner, 2000: Can we trust proxy-based NAO index reconstructions? Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1135-1138.

    Shabbar, A., K. Higuchi, W. Skinner, and J. L. Knox, 1997: The association between the BWA index and winter surface temperature variability over eastern Canada and west Greenland. International Journal of Climatology, 17, 1195-1210.

    Shindell, D. T., R. L. Miller, G. Schmidt, and L. Pandolfo, 1999: Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing. Nature, 399, 452-455.

    Siggurdson, O., and T. Jonsson, 1995: Relation of glacier variations to climate changes in Iceland. Annals of Glaciology, 21, 263-270.

    Stenseth, N. C., K.-S. Chan, H. Tong, R. Boonstra, S. Bouting, C. J. Krebs, E. Post, M. O'Donoghue, N. G. Yoccoz, M. C. Forchhammer, and J. W. Hurrell, 1999: Common dynamic structure of Canadian Lynx populations within three geo-climatic zones. Science, in press.

    Stockton, C. W., and M. F. Glueck, 1999: Long-term variability of the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO). Proc. Amer. Met. Soc. Tenth Symp. Global Change Studies, 11-15 January, 1999, Dallas, TX, 290-293.

    Glueck, M.F. and C.W. Stockton, Reconstruction of the North Atlantic Oscillation, 1429-1983, International J. of Climatology, submitted July 2000.

    Sutton, R. T., and M. R. Allen, 1997: Decadal predictability of North Atlantic sea surface temperature and climate. Nature, 388, 563-567.

    Sy, A,. M. Rhein, J. R. N. Lazier, K. P. Koltermann, J. Meincke, A. Putzka, and M. Bersch, 1997: Surprisingly rapid spreading of newly formed intermediate waters across the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 386, 675-679.

    Ting, M. and N.-C. Lau, 1993: A diagnostic and modeling study of the monthly mean wintertime anomalies appearing in an 100-year GCM experiment. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 50, 2845-2867.

    Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophysical Research Letters, 25,1297-1300.

    Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1999: Annual modes in the extratropical circulation Part I: month-to-month variability. Journal of Climate, in press.

    Thompson, D. W. J., J. M. Wallace, and G. C. Hegerl, 1999: Annual modes in the extratropical circulation Part II: trends. Journal of Climate, submitted.

    Timmermann, A., M. Latif, R. Voss, and A. Grîtzner, 1998: Northern Hemisphere interdecadal variability: a coupled air-sea mode. Journal of Climate, 11, 1906-1931.

    Trenberth, K. E., and J. W. Hurrell, 1999: Comment on The interpretation of short climate records with comments on the North Atlantic and Southern Oscillations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, in press.

    Trenberth, K. E., G. W. Branstator, D. Karoly, A. Kumar, N.-C. Lau, and C. Ropelewski, 1998: Progress during TOGA in understanding and modeling global teleconnections associated with tropical sea surface temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 14291-14324.

    Visbeck, M., H. Cullen, G. Krahmann, N. Naik, 1998: An ocean model's response to North Atlantic Oscillation-like wind forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4521-4524.

    Volodin, E. M., and V. Ya. Galin, 1999: Numerical simulation of ozone depletion influence on winter atmosphere circulation in Northern Hemisphere last decade. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, submitted.

    Wallace, J. M. and N.-C. Lau, 1985: On the role of barotropic energy conversions in the general circulation. Advances in Geophysics, 28A, 33-74.

    Wallace, J. M., Y. Zhang, and J. A. Renwick, 1995: Dynamic contribution to hemispheric mean temperature trends. Science, 270, 780--783.

    Walsh, J. E., W. L. Chapman, and T. L. Shy, 1996: Recent decrease of sea level pressure in the central Arctic. Journal of Climate, 9, 480-486.

    Watanabe, M. and T. Nitta, 1998: Relative impact of snow and sea surface temperature anomalies on an extreme phase in the winter atmospheric circulation. Journal of Climate, 11, 2837-2857.

    Watanabe, M. and T. Nitta, 1999: Decadal changes in the atmospheric circulation and associated surface climate variations in the Northern Hemisphere winter. Journal of Climate, 12, 494-510.

    Weng, W., and J. D. Neelin, 1998: On the role of ocean-atmosphere interaction in midlatitude interdecadal variability. Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 167-170.

    Wunch, C., 1999: The interpretation of short climate records, with comments on the North Atlantic and Southern Oscillations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 80, 257-270.

    Xie, S.-P. and Y. Tanimoto, 1998: A pan-Atlantic decadal climate oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 2185-2188.