Sources and Links


Aksu, A. E., T. J. Calon, R. N. Hiscott, and D. Yasar (2000), Anatomy of the North Anatolian Fault zone in the Marmara sea, western Turkey: Extensional basins above a continental transform, GSA Today, 10, 3–7.

Armijo, R., B. Meyer, S. Navarro, G. King, A. Barka. Asymmetric slip partitioning in the Sea of Marmara pull-apart: A clue to propagation processes of the North Anatolian Fault? Terra Nova, 14, 80-86, 2002.

Armijo, R., and 22 co-authors, 2005, Submarine fault scarps in the Sea of Marmara pull-apart (North Anatolian fault): Implications for seismic hazard in Istanbul, G3 6, Q06009, doi:10.1029/2004GC000896, ISSN: 1525-2027.

Carton, H., S.C. Singh, A. Hirn, S. Bazin, B. de Voogd, A. Vigner, A. Ricolleau, S. Cetin, N. Oçakoglu, F. Karakoç, and V. Sevilgen, 2007. Seismic imaging of the three-dimensional architecture of the Çınarcık Basin along the North Anatolian Fault, J. Geophys. Res. 112, B06101, doi:10.1029/2006JB004548.

Cormier, M.-H., Seeber, L.. Polonia, A., Çagatay, M.N., Emre, O., McHugh, C.M.G; Bertoluzzi, G.; Görür, N., 2006.  The North Anatolian fault in the Gulf of Izmit (Turkey): rapid vertical motion in response to minor bends of a non-vertical continental transform, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B04102, doi:10.1029/2005JB003633.

Demirbag, E., C. Rangin, X. Le Pichon, and A. M. C. Sengör (2003), Investigation of the tectonics of the Main Marmara Fault by means of deep-towed seismic data, Tectonophysics, 361, 1– 19.

Flerit, F., R. Armijo, G. C. P. King, B. Meyer, A. Barka, Slip partitioning in the Sea of Marmara pull-apart determined from GPS velocity vectors, Geophysical Journal International 2003 154:1 1

Gazioglu, C., Gokasan, E., Algan, O., Yucel, Z., Tok, B., Doğan, E., 2002. Morphologic features of the Marmara Sea from multibeam data. Marine Geology 190, 397– 420.

Imren, C., X. LePichon, C. Rangin, E. Demirbag, B. Ecevitoglu, and N. Görür, 2001. The north Anatolian fault within the Sea of Marmara: a new interpretation based on multi-channel seismic and multi-beam bathymetry data, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 186, 143-158.

Laigle M., A. Becel, B. de Voogd, A. Hirn, T. Taymaz, S. Ozalaybey and members of SEISMARMARA Leg1 Team, 2008. A first deep seismic survey in the Sea of Marmara: Deep basins and whole crust architecture and evolution, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 270, 168–179, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.02.031

Le Pichon, X., A.M.C. Sengör, E. Demirbag, C. Rangin, C. Imren, R. Armijo, N. Görür, N. Cagatay, B. Mercier de Lepinay, B. Meyer, R. Saatcilar, B. Tok.  The active Main Marmara fault, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 192, 595-616, 2001.

McClusky, S., S. Bassalanian, A. Barka, C. Demir, S. Ergintav, I. Georgiev, O. Gurkan, M. Hamburger, K. Hurst, H.-G. Kahle, K. Karstens, G. Kekelidze, R. King, V. Kotzev, O. Lenk, S. Mahmoud, A. Mishin, M. Nadariya, A. Ouzounis, D. Paradissis, Y. Peter, M. Prilepin, R. Relinger, I. Sanli, H. Seeger, A. Tealeb, M.N. Toksöz, and G. Veis, Global Positioning system constraints on plate kinematics and dynamics in the eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus, Journal of Geophysical Research, 105 (B3), 5695-5719, 2000.

Okay, A.I., A. Kaslilar-Ozcan, C. Imren, A. Boztepe-Güney, E., and I. Kusçu, 2000.  Active faults and evolving strike-slip basins in the Marmara Sea, northwest Turkey: a multichannel seismic reflection study, Tectonophysics, 321, 189-218.
Parke, J.R., Minshull, T.A., Anderson, G., White, R.S., McKenzie, D.P., KuYc¸u, I˙., Bull, J.M., Gfrur, N., Xengfr, A.M.C., 2000. Active faults in the Sea of Marmara, western Turkey, imaged by seismic reflection profiles. Terra Nova 11, 223– 227.
Parsons T, Toda S, Stein R, Barka A, Dieterich, JH. 2000. Heightened odds of large earthquakes near Istanbul: An interaction-based probability calculation. Science 288:661–65

Posamentier, H.W. and V. Kolla, 2003. Seismic geomorphology and stratigraphy of depositional elements in deep-water settings, J. Sediment. Res. 73, 37-388.

Rangin C., Demirbag E., Imren C., Crusson A., Normand A., Le Drezen E., and Le Bot A. 2001. Marine Atlas of the Sea of Marmara  (Turkey). Ifremer Brest Technology Center, 11 plates and 1 booklet; ISBN 2-84433-068-1.

Rangin, C., X. Le Pichon, E. Demirbag, and C. Imren (2004), Strain localization in the Sea of Marmara: Propagation of the North Anatolian Fault in a now inactive pull-apart, Tectonics, 23, TC2014, doi:10.1029/ 2002TC001437.

Reilinger R., et al. (2006), GPS constraints on continental deformation in the Africa-Arabia-Eurasia continental collision zone and implications for the dynamics of plate interactions, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B05411, doi:10.1029/2005JB004051.

Seeber, L. O. Emre, M. Cormier, C. Sorlien, C. McHugh, and A. Polonia, and the team of the 2000 Urania cruise in the Marmara Sea, 2004, Uplift and Subsidence from oblique slip: The Ganos-Marmara bend on the North Anatolian transform, western Turkey, Tectonophysics, 391, 239-258.

Seeber, L., M.-H. Cormier, C. McHugh, O. Emre, A. Polonia, C. Sorlien, 2006,  Rapid subsidence and sedimentation from oblique slip near a bend on the North Anatolian Transform in the Marmara Sea, Turkey, Geology, 34, 933-936; doi:10.1130/g22520A.1.

Sengör, A.M.C., O. Tüysüz, C. Imren, M. Sakınc, H. Eyidogan, N. Görür, X. Le Pichon, and C. Rangin, The North Anatolian Fault: A New Look, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2005. 33:37–112 doi: 10.1146/

United States Geological Survey (USGS), Implications for Earthquake Risk Reduction in the United States from the Kocaeli, Turkey, Earthquake of August 17, 1999.  U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1193, 65pp., 2000.

Yaltirak, C., Tectonic evolution of the Marmara Sea and its surroundings, Marine Geology, 190, 493-529, 2002.
Yaltirak, C., and Alpar, B., Evolution of the middle strand of the North Anatolian Fault and shallow seismic investigation of the southeastern Marmara Sea (Gemlik Bay) Marine Geology, 307-327, 2002


US Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program, 1999 Izmit, Turkey Earthquake

Tectonic Setting of the Izmit Earthquake – IPGP

Seislab, Insttute of Marine Sciences, Dokuz Eyül University

International workshop on comparative studies of the North Anatolian Fault and the San Andreas Fault (Southern California)