Google Scholar Profile

In preparation or in review

Steiger, N.J., J.E. Smerdon, E.R. Cook, E. Tejedor, R. Orrison, M. Vuille, The Paleo Hydrodynamics Data Assimilation product (PHYDA) version 2. In preparation.

Tejedor, E., L. Polvani, N.J. Steiger, M. Vuille, J.E. Smerdon, Evidence from the Last Millennium for a winter cooling over Eurasia induced by large, low-latitude volcanic eruptions. In prepration.

Steiger, N.J., J.E. Smerdon, A Fixed-lag Kalman Smoother approach to paleoclimate data assimilation. In preparation.

Luo, X., S.G. Dee, S. Stevenson, Y. Okumura, N.J. Steiger, L. Parsons, Last millennium ENSO diversity and North American teleconnections: new insights from paleoclimate data assimilation. In review.

Dee, S.G., N.J. Steiger, On the external forcing of ENSO over the past millennium. In review.

Steiger, N.J., W.J. D'Andrea, J.E. Smerdon, R.S. Bradley, Large infrequent rain events dominate the hydroclimate of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). In review.


Steiger, N.J., J.E. Smerdon, A.P. Williams, R. Seager, A. Varuolo-Clarke, ENSO-driven coupled megadroughts in North and South America over the last millennium. Nature Geoscience, (2021).

Tejedor, E., N.J. Steiger, J.E. Smerdon, R. Serrano-Notivoli, M. Vuille, Global temperature responses to large tropical volcanic eruptions in paleo data assimilation products and climate model simulations over the Last Millennium. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, (2021).

Huston, A., N. Siler, G.H. Roe, E. Pettit, N.J. Steiger, Understanding drivers of glacier-length variability over the last millennium. The Cryosphere, (2021).

Tejedor, E., N.J. Steiger, J.E. Smerdon, R. Serrano-Notivoli, M. Vuille, Global hydroclimatic response to tropical volcanic eruptions over the last millennium. PNAS, (2021).  [Selected press: WAMC,, Newswise, Science Bulletin, Madrid, Europa Press]


Erb, M.P., J. Emile-Geay, G.J. Hakim, N.J. Steiger, E.J. Steig, Atmospheric Dynamics Drive Most Interannual U.S. Droughts over the Last Millennium. Science Advances, (2020).  [Selected press: AAAS, ScienMag, Science Daily, ]

Harris, T., B. Li, N.J. Steiger, J.E. Smerdon, N. Narisetty, J.D. Tucker, Evaluating proxy influence in assimilated paleoclimate reconstructions: Testing the exchangeability of two ensembles of spatial processes. Journal of the American Statistical Association, (2020).

Datwyler, C., M. Grosjean, N.J. Steiger, R. Neukom. Teleconnections and relationship between ENSO and SAM in reconstructions and models over the past millennium. Climate of the Past, (2020).


Neukom, R., N.J. Steiger, J.J. Gómez-Navarro, J. Wang, J. Werner, No evidence for globally coherent warm and cold periods over the pre-industrial Common Era. Nature, (2019).  [Selected press (over 1000 outlets): BBC, The Guardian, Reuters, USA Today, New York Times, LA Times, The Atlantic, Axios, FiveThirtyEight, NBC, CBC, Smithsonian, Science, EOS, Scientific American, Discover Magazine, Haaretz, Le Monde, Der Spiegel, El País]

Steiger, N.J., J.E. Smerdon, B.I. Cook, R. Seager, A.P. Williams, E.R. Cook, Oceanic and radiative forcing of medieval megadroughts in the American Southwest. Science Advances, (2019).  [Selected press: BBC, National Geographic, USA Today, Mashable, Newsweek, The Weather Channel, Live Science,, Vice, The Hill]

Baek, S.H., N.J. Steiger, J.E. Smerdon, R. Seager, Oceanic drivers of widespread summer droughts in the United States over the Common Era. Geophysical Research Letters, (2019).

Klein, F., N.J. Abram, M.A.J. Curran, H. Goosse, S. Goursaud, V. Masson-Delmotte, A. Moy, R. Neukom, A. Orsi, J. Sjolte, N.J. Steiger, B. Stenni, M. Werner, Assessing the robustness of Antarctic temperature reconstructions over the past two millennia using pseudoproxy and data assimilation experiments. Climate of the Past, (2019).


Steiger, N.J., J.E. Smerdon, E.R. Cook, B.I. Cook, A reconstruction of global hydroclimate and dynamical variables over the Common Era. Scientific Data, (2018).

Neukom, R., A.P. Schurer, N.J. Steiger, G.C. Hegerl, Possible causes of data model discrepancy in the temperature history of the last Millennium. Scientific Reports, (2018).


Hydro2k Consortium: Smerdon, J.E., J. Luterbacher, S. Phipps, K.J. Anchukaitis, T.R. Ault, S. Coats, K.M. Cobb, B.I. Cook, C. Colose, T. Felis, A. Gallant, J.H. Jungclaus, B. Konecky, A. LeGrande, S. Lewis, A.S. Lopatka, W. Man, J.S. Mankin, J.T. Maxwell, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, J.W. Partin, D. Singh, N.J. Steiger, S. Stevenson, J.E. Tierney, D. Zanchettin, H. Zhang, A. Atwood, L. Andreu-Hayles, S.H. Baek, B. Buckley, E.R. Cook, R. D'Arrigo, S.G. Dee, M. Griffiths, C. Kulkarni, Y. Kushnir, F. Lehner, C. Leland, H.W. Linderholm, A. Okazaki, J. Palmer, E. Piovano, C.C. Raible, M.P. Rao, J. Scheff, G.A. Schmidt, R. Seager, M. Widmann, A.P. Williams, E. Xoplaki, Comparing proxy and model estimates of hydroclimate variability and change over the Common Era. Climate of the Past, (2017).

Steiger, N.J., J.E. Smerdon, A pseudoproxy assessment of data assimilation for reconstructing the atmosphere-ocean dynamics of hydroclimate extremes. Climate of the Past, (2017).

Steiger, N.J., E.J. Steig, S.G. Dee, G.H. Roe, and G.J. Hakim, Climate reconstruction using data assimilation of water-isotope ratios from ice cores. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, (2017).


Dee, S.G., N.J. Steiger, J. Emile-Geay, and G.J. Hakim, On the utility of proxy system models for estimating climate states over the Common Era. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, (2016). [ JAMES Commentary ]

Steiger, N.J., and G.J. Hakim, Multi-time scale data assimilation for atmosphere–ocean state estimates. Climate of the Past, (2016).

Hakim, G.J., J. Emile-Geay, E.J. Steig, D. Noone, D.M. Anderson, R. Tardif, N.J. Steiger, and W.A. Perkins, The last millennium climate reanalysis project: framework and first results. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, (2016).

2015 and prior

Steig, E.J., K. Huybers, H.A. Singh, N.J. Steiger, Q. Ding, D.M.W. Frierson, T. Popp, and J.W.C. White, Influence of West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse on Antarctic surface climate. Geophysical Research Letters, (2015).

Steiger, N.J., G.J. Hakim, E.J. Steig, D.S. Battisti, and G.H. Roe, Assimilation of time-averaged pseudoproxies for climate reconstruction. Journal of Climate, (2014).

Steiger, N.J. and J.F. Van Huele, Quantifying Incompatibility: The Ramifications of Extending Angular Momentum Uncertainty Relations, Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, 86, 197-209, (2010).