Terry Plank

Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, 61 Rte 9W, PO Box 1000, Palisades, NY 10964

845/365-8410    tplank@ldeo.columbia.edu


2008-presentArthur D. Storke Memorial Professor, Earth and Environmental Science, Columbia University

2005-2007 Professor, Earth Sciences, Boston University

1999-2005Associate Professor, Earth Sciences, Boston University

2002 (summer)Visiting Professor, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France

1995-1999Assistant Professor, University of Kansas

1998 (summer)Visiting Professor, University of Rennes, Rennes, France

1993-1995   Post-doctoral Fellow, Cornell University (W.M. White, supervisor)


1985-1992Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University,

Ph.D., Geosciences, with distinction, May 1993

Thesis title:  Mantle Melting and Crustal Recycling at Subduction Zones.

Advisor: Charles H. Langmuir

1981-1985Dartmouth College

A.B., Earth Sciences, summa cum laude, 1985

Sr Thesis: Magmatic Garnets from the Cardigan Pluton, NH

Advisor: John B. Lyons


Member, National Academy of Sciences (2013) • MacArthur Foundation Fellow (2013-2018) • EarthScope Lecturer (2011-2012) • Fellow of the Geochemical Society (2011) •  Mineralogical Society of America Distinguished Lecturer (2010-2011) • Fellow of the Mineralogical Society of America (2009)  •  Fellow of the American Geophysical Union (2008) •  Ingerson Lecturer, Geochemical Society (2007) •  MARGINS Distinguished Lecturer (2006)  •  Donath Young Scientist Medal, Geological Society of America (1998)  • Fellow of the Geological Society of America (1998)  •  Houtermans Young Scientist Medal,  European Assoc'n Geochemistry (1998)  •  Joint Oceanographic Institutions/USSAC Distinguished Lecturer (1994-5)  • National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship (1993-4) •  Heezen Prize for Excellence in Research, Lamont-Doherty Earth Obs. (1991)  • JOI/USSAC Ocean Drilling Program Fellowship (1998-90)  • National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship (1985-88) • John Ebers Geology Award, Dartmouth College (1985)  •  Upham Geology Prize, Dartmouth College (1985) • Summer Undergraduate Research Fellow, GSO, U. Rhode Island (1984)  •  Phi Beta Kappa, Dartmouth College (1984)


2010Sample collecting, Mojave Desert, CA

2009Sample collecting, Uinkaret Volcanic Field, W. Grand Canyon, AZ

2008Sample collecting, Crater Flat, NV and Big Pine Volcanic Field, CA

2007Sample collecting, Seguam island and volcano, Aleutians

2005Sample collecting, Akutan volcano, Aleutians

1996Sample collecting: Nicaragua volcanoes

1989Sample collecting: Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico.

1987Sample collecting: Zambales ophiolite and Bulusan volcano, Philippines

1984-5Sample collecting: Cardigan pluton, New Hampshire


1999Co-Chief Scientist, JOIDES Resolution., ODP Leg 185.  Mariana-Izu

1992Shipboard Scientist, R/V Atlantis II.  Dredging and rock coring the

          Mid Atlantic Ridge near the Azores (30-40°N).

1989Shipboard Scientist, R/V Thomas Washington.

             Dredging and Seabeam mapping of the East Pacific Rise 8-12°N.

1988Shipboard Scientist, SEDCO/BP 471, JOIDES Resolution.

   Igneous Petrologist, ODP Leg 123, Argo Abyssal Plain.

1988Shipboard Scientist, R/V Moana Wave.  Dredging and SEAMARC II              survey of the Australian-Antarctic Discordance, Indian Ocean.

Professional Activities (Past 5 years)

2014-2015Convener, CIDER Summer Program: Solid Earth & the Hydro/Carbosphere

2014-2015Convener, DCO Thematic Instit. Carbon from the Mantle to the Surface

2014-2015Convener, SOTA, State-of-the-Arc, Montserrat, Caribbean

2013-2015Executive Committee, Deep Carbon Observatory, Sloan Foundation

2012-2015Member, WHOI Ionprobe Nation Facility Advisory Committee

2012-2014Goldschmidt Medal Committee, Geochemical Society

2012-2013Goldschmidt Conference 2013, 2015, Theme Organizer and Team Member

2012-2015Advisory Committee for CIDER-II (Cooperative Inst. for Dynamic Earth Research)

2012-2015Steering Committee for Reservoirs and Fluxes, Deep Carbon Observatory

2012-2015NAS: U.S. National Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics

2011-2012EarthScope Distinguished Lecturer

2011Co-convener, Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (EarthScope Institute)

2010Lecturer, CIDER (Cooperative Institute for Dynamic Earth Research)

2008-2011Member, EarthScope Science Steering Committee

2008-2011Member, Advisory Board for ELEMENT Magazine (Geochemical Soc.)

2008-2011Member, AGU Fellows Nominating Committee, Volc-Geoch-Petrol

2006-2008Secretary and Fall Meeting Planning, AGU, Volcanology-Petrology Section    

Department & University Service, Earth and Environmental Science, Columbia University

2014                    Search Committee, Experimental Earth Science Faculty Position

2013                    Search Committe for Executive Vice President for Arts and Sciences

2011-2013            co-Director of Undergraduate Studies

2011-2013            member, then chair of Curriculum Committee

2009-2013            co-organizer of Geodynamics Seminar (one third external speakers)

2013                    Postdoctoral Fellows Selection Committee

2009-2013           Various: Adjunct Faculty Committee, Endowment Committee, Vision Committee 

Students: Primary Advisor or Co-Advisor

Dan Rasmussen (Ph.D.; Columbia Univ/LDEO., in progress)

Claire Bendersky (M.Phil.; Columbia/LDEO, 2014) "Magmatism in the Basin and Range"

Alexander Lloyd  (Ph.D.; Columbia Univ/LDEO., 2014) "Timescles of magma ascent during explosive eruptions: Insights from the re-equilibration of magmatic volatiles."

Timothy Greene (B.A., Columbia Univ., senior thesis, 2011)  “The Origin of Volcanism in Papua New Guinea”

Lauren Cooper  (Ph.D.; Boston Univ., 2009) "Volatiles in Tonga arc magmas and their role in unraveling subduction zone processes. "   Now at:  ETH, Zurich, Switzerland.

Mindy Zimmer (Ph.D.; Boston Univ., 2008) "Water in Aleutian Magmas: Its Origins in the Subduction Zone and its Effects on Magma Evolution"  Went on to:  Exxon Research, Clinton, NJ, Postdoctoral Fellow.  Now at: Los Alamos National Lab

Jennifer Wade (Ph.D., Boston Univ., 2008) “Constraints on the Central American Slab Fluid Composition from Arc Melt Inclusions and Phenocrysts”  Went on to: Library of Congress, Washington, DC, Post-doctoral fellow. Now at:  NSF, EAR.

Kevin Schrecengost (B.A., Boston Univ., senior thesis, 2007)  “Using thermobarometry to determine the pressure of crystallization of Aleutian magmas”  Went on to: University of North Carolina, MA program.

Kathryn Grover (B.A., Boston Univ., senior thesis, 2006)  “Magmatic water content in Aleutian Volcanoes”

Ezra Benjamin (M.A., Boston Univ., 2004)  "Water content of a hypothetically dry magma: The 1723 and 1963 eruptions of Irazu Volcano, Costa Rica"  Now at: Enviornmental Resource Management, Boston.

Katherine Kelley (Ph.D.; Boston Univ., 2004)  “Trench inputs and arc outputs in the Mariana-Izu-Bonin Subduction Factory”  Now at: Graduate School of Oceanography, Univ. of Rhode Island, NSF-ADVANCE Faculty Fellow, Associate Professor.

Michael Hamilton (B.A., Boston Univ., senior thesis, 2003)  “Using phenocryst composition as a water proxy in Alamagan lavas, Marianas Islands”  Went on to: Univ. of Northern Arizona MA program

Linda Farr (M.S., Boston Univ., 2002)  “Mineral hosts of uranium in the altered oceanic crust and  mechanisms controlling its distribution: a laser ablation-ICPMS study.  Now at: Miami Dade College, Faculty.

Vaughn Balzer (M.S.; Kansas; 1999)“Late Miocene history of sediment subduction & recycling

     as recorded in the Nicaraguan volcanic arc”  Now at:  Oregon State Geological Survey

Kefa Wang (Ph.D., Kansas; 1999)  “Crust-mantle interactions and mantle chemical systematics

     during Basin and Range extension, SW USA: Evidence from late Cenozoic volcanic rocks”     

      Now at:  Sprint Communications, Kansas City.

Chris Spies (B.S., Kansas, senior thesis, 1999)  “Geochemical variations in recent Nicaragua

     and Costa Rica volcanics”

Post-Doctoral Research scientists mentored:

Alexander Lloyd(Ph.D., Columbia University, 2014) Columbia Science Fellow 2014-

David Ferguson(Ph.D., Oxford University, 2011)LDEO 2011-2013

Postdoctoral Fellow, Harvard University, 2014-

Elizabeth Ferriss (Ph.D., University of Michigan, 2009)  LDEO 2011-2014

Lamont Associate Research Scientist, 2014-

Philipp Ruprecht (Ph.D., University of Washington, 2009)  LDEO 2009-2012

Lamont Assistant Researtch Professor, 2013-

Esteban Gazel (Ph.D., Rutgers University, 2009)  LDEO 2009-2011

Assistant Professor, Virginia Tech, 2011 -

Courses Taught, Columbia University

        SCNC C1000 Frontiers of Science, Columbia Core Curriculum, Earth Science module (one quarter of course), enrollment is half the freshman class (~500 students), taught annually 2009-2013

        EESC 3101:  Geochemistry for a Habitable Planet, depth course for Earth and Environmental Science majors, undergraduates only, enrollments 7-25 students, taught annually 2009-2013

        EESC 9701: Seminars in Petrology/Geochemistry/Tectonics: Diffusion (2013), Volcanic Eruptions (2011), Volcanism & Extension (2011), Volcano Petrology (2008),  Volatiles (2008). Graduate students, some undergradates, Lamont scientists and faculty, typically 15-25 attendees.

Active Projects:

"Collaborative Research: From the Slab to the Surface: Origin, Storage, Ascent, and Eruption of Volatile-Bearing Magmas"  National Science Foundation (GeoPrisms)  EAR-1456814

Period:   06/01/2015 - 05/31/2018

with D. Roman and E. Hauri (Carnegie)

"Water diffusion in olivine: Experiments and application to phenocrysts"

National Science Foundation (CH)  EAR-1449699

Period:   01/01/2015 - 12/31/2015

PI:  E.Ferriss and Plank (LDEO)


You can read about my research, and hear me talk about it too, here:






PUBLICATIONS: see full list on Publications page

Total number publications (1987 - 2014): 70

Total number citations       (1987 - 2014):    ~7500  (Google Scholar)

h index: 32

most cited publications: ** (n > 100)      * (n > 50)

You can find the full chronological list of my publications, and links to many of them, on the Publications Button, above.  Here I clump selected papers into topics that have characterized my work:

Papers on Magma Generation in the Mantle:

Wei, S.S, D A. Wiens, Y. Zha, T. Plank, S. C. Webb, D. K. Blackman, R.A. Dunn, and J. A. Conder (2015) Seismological Evidence of Effects of Water on Mantle Melt Transport beneath the Lau Back-arc Basin. Nature, in press.

Abers, GA, KM Fischer, G Hirth, DA Wiens, T Plank, BK Holtzman, C McCarthy, E Gazel (2014) Reconciling mantle attenuation-temperature relationships from seismology, petrology and laboratory measurements. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 10.1002/2014GC005444.

Wanless, V.D., M.D.Behn, A.M.Shaw, T. Plank (2014)  Variations in melting dynamics and mantle compositions along the Eastern Volcanic Zone of the Gakkel Ridge: insights from olivine-hosted melt inclusions.  Contrib Mineral Petrol, 167:1005.  DOI 10.1007/s00410-014-1005-7

Ferguson, D.J., J. Maclennan, I.D. Bastow, D.M. Pyle, S.M. Jones, D. Keir, J.D. Blundy, T. Plank, G. Yirgu (2013) Melting during late-stage rifting in Afar is hot and deep.  Nature, 499: 70-74. doi:10.1038/nature12292.

Waters, C.L., Sims, K.W.W, Soule, S.A, Blichert-Toft, J., Dunbar, N.W., Plank, T., Sohn, R.A., Tivey, M.A.  Recent Volcanic Accretion at 9-10°N East Pacific Rise as Resolved by Combined Geochemical and Geological Observations. G3, in press, 2013.

Gazel, E., Plank, T. Forsyth, D., Bendersky, C., Lee, C-T.A., Hauri, E.H. Lithosphere vs. Asthenosphere Sources at Big Pine Volcanic Field. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 13  doi:10.1029/2012GC004060.

* Kelley, K.A., Plank, T., Newman, S., Stolper, E. Grove, T.L., Parman, S. and Hauri, E. (2010) Mantle melting as a function of water content beneath the Mariana arc.  Journal of Petrology,  doi:10.1093/petrology/egq036.

** Lee, C-T., Luffi, P., Plank, T., Dalton, H., Leeman, W.P. (2009)  Constraints on the depths and temperatures of basaltic magma generation on Earth and other terrestrial planets using new thermobarometers.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters,  279: 20-33.

Wiens, D.A., Kelley, K. and Plank, T. (2006)  Mantle temperature variations beneath back-arc spreading centers inferred from seismology, petrology and bathymetry. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 248: 30-42.

** Kelley, K.A., Plank, T., Newman, S., Stolper, E. Grove, T.L. and Hauri, E. (2006) Mantle melting as a function of water content at subduction zones.  I: Back-arc Basins. J. Geophysical Research, 111: B09208.

** Wang, K., Plank, T., Walker, J.D. and Smith, E.I. (2002)  A mantle melting profile across the Basin and Range, SW USA. J. Geophys. Res., 107: 10.1029/2001JB000209, ECV 5-1-21.

Plank, T., M. Spiegelman, C.H. Langmuir and D. Forsyth (1995)  The meaning of "Mean F": Clarifying the mean extent of melting at ocean ridges, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 15045-15052.  

** Langmuir, C.H., E.M. Klein and T. Plank  (1992)  Petrological systematics of mid-ocean ridge basalts: Constraints on melt generation beneath ocean ridges.  In Mantle Flow and Melt Generation at Mid-Ocean Ridges, J. Phipps-Morgan, D.K. Blackman and J. Sinton, eds., AGU Geophysical Monograph, 71, 183-280. 

** Plank, T. and C.H. Langmuir  (1992)  Effects of the melting regime on the composition of the oceanic crust,  Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 19749-19770. 

** Plank, T. and C.H. Langmuir  (1988)  An evaluation of global variations in the major element chemistry of arc basalts.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 90, 349-370. 

Papers on Volatiles in Magmas and Timescales of Volcanic Processes

Moore, L., E, Gazel, R Tuohy, A Lloyd, R Esposito, EH Hauri, PJ Wallace, T Plank, RJ Bodnar (2015) Bubbles matter: An assessment of the contribution of vapor bubbles to melt inclusion volatile budgets. American Mineralogist, in press.

††Ferriss, E., Plank, T., Walker, D., Nettles, M.  (2015) The whole block approach: Measuring hydrogen diffusivity by geochemical tomography. American Mineralogist, DOI: http: //dx.doi.org/10.2138/am-2015-4947.

Wallace P, Plank T, Edmonds M, Hauri EH (2015) Volatiles in Magmas. In: H. Sigurdsson et al. (Editors) Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, Elsevier, in press.

Lloyd, A.S., Plank, T., Ruprecht, P., Hauri, E.H., Rose, W., and Gonnermann, H.M. (2014) NanoSIMS results from olivine-hosted melt embayments: Magma ascent rate during explosive basaltic eruptions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 283, 1-18, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.06.002.

Ruprecht, P. and Plank, T. (2013)  Feeding andesitic eruptions with a high-speed connection from the mantle.   Nature, v: 50, 68-72 doi:10.1038/nature12342.

Plank, T. Kelley, K.A., †Zimmer, M.M., Hauri, E.H. and Wallace, P.J. Why do mafic arc magmas contain ~4 wt% water on average? (2013)  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Frontiers Article, v. 364: 168-179.

Lloyd, A.S., Plank, T., Ruprecht, P., Hauri, E. and Rose, W. Volatile Loss from Melt Inclusions in Pyroclasts of Differing Sizes. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 165: 129-153.  DOI 10.1007/s00410-012-0800-2

Ruscitto, D.,  P.J. Wallace, † L. Cooper and T. Plank (2012) Global Variations in H2O/Ce II: Relationships to Arc Magma Geochemistry and Volatile Fluxes. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 13, Q03025, 27 PP., doi:10.1029/2011GC003887

Parman, S.W., Grove, T.L., Kelley, K.A. and Plank, T. (2011) Along-arc variations in the pre-eruptive H2O contents of magmas inferred from fractionation paths.  Journal of Petrology, 52: 257-278,  doi:10.1093/petrology/egq079 .

Zimmer, M.M., T. Plank, E.H. Hauri, G.M. Yogodzinski, P. Stelling,  J. Larsen,  B. Singer, B. Jicha, Mandeville, C. and C.J. Nye (2010) The role of water in generating  the calc-alkaline trend: New volatile data for Aleutian magmas and a new tholetiitic index. Journal of Petrology, 51: 2411-2444, doi:10.1093/petrology/egq062.

Cooper, L. B., T. Plank, R. J. Arculus, E. H. Hauri, P. S. Hall, and S. W. Parman (2010), High-Ca boninites from the active Tonga Arc, J. Geophys. Res., 115, B10206, doi:10.1029/2009JB006367.

Wade, J., Plank, T., Zimmer, M., Hauri, E., Roggensack, K., Kelley, K. (2008)  Prediction of magmatic water contents via measurement of  H2O in clinopyroxene phenocrysts. Geology, v. 36: 799-802.

* Benjamin, E.R., Plank, T., Wade, J.A., Kelley, K.A., Hauri, E.H., Alvarado, G.E. (2007) High water contents in basaltic magmas from Irazu Volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 168: 68-92.

* Wade, J.A., Plank, T., Melson, W.G., Soto, G.J. and Hauri, E. (2006)  The volatile content of magmas from Arenal volcano.  J. Volcan. Geotherm. Res., 157: 94-120.

Papers on Sediment Subduction and Recycling:

Prytulak, J., Nielsen, S.G., Plank, T. Barker, M. and Elliott, T. (2013) Assessing the utility of thallium and thallium isotopes for tracing subduction zone inputs to the Mariana arc. Chemical Geology, in press.

Plank, T. (2013) The Chemical Composition of Subducting Sediments. In: Holland H.D. and Turekian K.K. (eds.) Treatise on Geochemistry, Second Edition, vol. 4, pp. 607-629. Oxford: Elsevier.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-095975-7.00319-3. Data tables archived at EarthChem Library: DOI: 10.1594/IEDA/100416

*Vervoort, J.D., Plank, T., and Prytulak, J. (2011) The Hf-Nd isotopic composition of marine sediments.  Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 75: 5903-5926.

Chauvel, C., Marini, J-C., Plank, T., Ludden, J.N. (2009)  Hf-Nd input flux in the Izu-Mariana subduction zone and recycling of subducted material in the mantle. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 10, Q01001, doi:10.1029/2008GC002101.

Plank, T. and van Keken, P. (2008)  News and Views, Geodynamics: Ups and downs of sediments.  Nature Geoscience, v.1, p. 17-18.

Plank, T., Kelley, K.A., Murray, R.W., and Quintin-Stern L. (2007) Chemical composition of sediment subducting at the Izu-Bonin trench. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst, v. 8/4, Q04I16, doi:10.1029/2006GC001444, 16 pp.

Prytulak, J., Vervoort, J.D., Plank, T., and Yu, C. (2006)  Astoria Fan sediments, DSDP Site 174, Cascadia Basin: Hf-Nd-Pb Constraints on Provenance and Outburst Flooding.  Chemical Geology,  233:  276-292.

* Chan, L-H., Leeman, W.P. and Plank, T.  (2006)  Lithium isotopic composition of marine sediments, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst,  v. 7, Q06005, doi:10.1029/2005GC001202.

Ludden, J., Plank, T. Larson, R. and Escutia, C. (2006)  ODP Leg 185:  Sampling the oldest crust in the ocean basins to understand Earth's geodynamic and geochemical fluxes.  Leg Synthesis.  Proc. ODP, Sci. Res. [Online]

George, R., Turner, S., Morris, J.D, Plank, T., Hawkesworth, C.J. and Ryan, J. (2005)  Pressure-temperature-time paths of sediment recycling beneath the Tonga-Kermadec arc.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 233: 195-211.

** Plank, T. (2005)  Constraints from Th/La on sediment recycling at subduction zones and the evolution of the continents.  J. Petrology, 46 (5), 921-44, doi:10.1093/petrology/egi005.

* Plank, T., Balzer, V. and Carr, M. (2002)  Nicaraguan volcanoes record paleoceanographic changes accompanying closure of the Panama gateway.  Geology, v. 30: 1087-1090.

** Johnson, M. C., and T. Plank (1999)  Dehydration and melting experiments constrain the fate of subducted sediments, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 1:  doi:10.1029/1999GC000014.

** Plank, T. and Langmuir, C.H. (1998)  The chemical composition of subducting sediment: implications for the crust and mantle.  Chemical Geology, 145: 325-394.

** Plank, T. and C.H. Langmuir  (1993)   Tracing trace elements from sediment input to volcanic output at subduction zones, Nature, 362, 739-743. 

Other Topics on Subduction

Davidson, J., Turner, S. and Plank, T  (2013) Dy/Dy*: variations arising from mantle sources and petrogenetic processes.  Journal of Petrology, 54(3): 525-537, doi:10.1093/petrology/egs076.

Cooper, L.B., Ruscitto, D., Plank, T., Wallace, P.J., Syracuse, E. and Manning, C.E. (2012)  Global Variations in H2O/Ce I: Slab Surface Temperatures beneath Volcanic Arcs. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 13, Q03024, 27 PP., doi:10.1029/2011GC003902 

Hall, P.S., Cooper, L.C. and Plank, T. (2012) Thermochemical evolution of the sub-arc mantle due to back-arc spreading.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, B02201, doi:10.1029/2011JB008507

* Plank, T., Cooper, L. and Manning, C.E. (2009)  New geothermometers for estimating slab surface temperatures.  Nature Geoscience, 2: 611-615.

Rychert, C. A., K. M. Fischer, G. A. Abers, T. Plank, E. Syracuse, J. M. Protti, V. Gonzalez, W. Strauch (2008)  Strong along-arc variations in attenuation in the mantle wedge beneath Costa Rica and Nicaragua.  Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, Q10S10, doi/10.1029/2008GC002040.

* †Wade, JA, T Plank, RJ. Stern, DL. Tollstrup, JB. Gill, JC.O’Leary, J Eiler, R B. Moore, JD Woodhead, F Trusdell, TP. Fischer, and DR. Hilton (2005) The May 2003 eruption of Anatahan volcano, Mariana Islands: geochemical evolution of a silicic island arc volcano.  J. Volcan. Geotherm. Res., v. 146: 139-170.

* Kelley, K.A., Plank T., †Farr, L., Ludden, J. and Staudigel, H. (2005)  Subduction cycling of U, Th and Pb.  Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 234: 369-383.

** Kelley, K.A., Plank, T., Ludden, J.N. and H. Staudigel (2003)  The composition of altered oceanic crust at ODP sites 801 and 1149. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst.. 4 (6), doi: 10.1029/2002GC000435.

* Abers, G.A., Plank, T. and Hacker, B.R. (2003)  The wet Nicaragua slab.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(2), 1098, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015649, 2003.

** Elliott, T., Plank, T., Zindler, A., White, W. and Bourdon, B. (1997)  Element transport from subducted slab to volcanic front at the Mariana arc, Journal of Geophysical Research, 102: 14991-15019.

** Staudigel, H., Plank, T., White, W.M. and Schmincke, H. (1996)  Geochemical fluxes during seafloor alteration of the upper oceanic crust: DSDP Sites 417 and 418, Bebout and Kirby, eds., SUBCON: Subduction From Top to Bottom, AGU Geophysical Monograph, 96, 19-38.