This page lists literature on the use of (230Thexcess)0 as a constant flux proxy. For literature on 231Pa/230Th, see this page. This compilation is a work in progress. If you find that I missed any paper, kindly email me at


  • Suman, D. O., & Bacon, M. P. (1989). Variations in Holocene sedimentation in the North American Basin determined from 230Th measurements. Deep Sea Research Part A, Oceanographic Research Papers, 36(6), 869–878.


  • Francois, R., Bacon, M. P., & Suman, D. O. (1990). Thorium 230 profiling in deep-sea sediments: high-resolution records of flux and dissolution of carbonate in the equatorial Atlantic during the last 24,000 years. Paleoceanography, 5(5), 761–787.

  • Thomson, J., Colley, S., Anderson, R., Cook, G. T., MacKenzie, A. B., & Harkness, D. D. (1993). Holocene sediment fluxes in the northeast Atlantic from 230Thexcess and radiocarbon measurements. Paleoceanography, 8(5), 631–650.

  • Francois, R., & Bacon, M. P. (1994). Heinrich events in the North Atlantic: radiochemical evidence. Deep-Sea Research Part I, 41(2), 315–334.

  • Thomson, J., Higgs, N. C., & Clayton, T. (1995). A geochemical criterion for the recognition of Heinrich events and estimation of their depostional fluxes by the (230Thexcess)0 profiling method. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 135, 41–56.

  • McManus, J. F., Anderson, R. F., Broecker, W. S., Fleisher, M. Q., & Higgins, S. M. (1998). Radiometrically determined sedimentary fluxes in the sub-polar North Atlantic during the last 140,000 years. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 155, 29–43.

  • Henderson, G. M., Heinze, C., Anderson, R. F., & Winguth, A. M. E. (1999). Global distribution of the 230Th flux to ocean sediments constrained by GCM modelling. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 46(11), 1861–1893.

  • Thomson, J., Nixon, S., Summerhayes, C. P., Schönfeld, J., Zahn, R., & Grootes, P. (1999). Implications for sedimentation changes on the Iberian margin over the last two glacial/interglacial transitions from (230Thexcess)0 systematics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 165(3–4), 255–270.

  • Veiga-Pires, C. C., & Hillaire-Marcel, C. (1999). U and Th isotope constraints on the duration of Heinrich events H0-H4 in the southeastern Labrador Sea. Paleoceanography, 14(2), 187–199.


  • Henderson, G. M., & Anderson, R. F. (2003). The U-series Toolbox for Paleoceanography. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 52(1), 493–531.

  • Francois, R., Frank, M., Rutgers van der Loeff, M. M., & Bacon, M. P. (2004). 230Th normalization: An essential tool for interpreting sedimentary fluxes during the late Quaternary. Paleoceanography, 19(1), n/a-n/a.


  • Marcantonio, F., Lyle, M., & Ibrahim, R. (2014). Particle sorting during sediment redistribution processes and the effect on 230Th-normalized mass accumulation rates. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 5547–5554.

  • Costa, K., & McManus, J. (2017). Efficacy of 230Th normalization in sediments from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, northeast Pacific Ocean. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 197, 215–225.

  • Loveley, M. R., Marcantonio, F., Lyle, M., Ibrahim, R., Hertzberg, J. E., & Schmidt, M. W. (2017). Sediment redistribution and grain size effects on 230Th-normalized mass accumulation rates and focusing factors in the Panama Basin. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 480, 107–120.

  • Costa, K.M., Hayes, C.T., Anderson, R.F., Pavia, F.J., Bausch, A., Deng, F., Dutay, J.‐C., Geibert, W., Heinze, C., Henderson, G., Hillaire‐Marcel, C., Hoffmann, S., Jaccard, S.L., Jacobel, A.W., Kienast, S.S., Kipp, L., Lerner, P., Lippold, J., Lund, D., Marcantonio, F., McGee, D., McManus, J.F., Mekik, F., Middleton, J.L., Missiaen, L., Not, C., Pichat, S., Robinson, L.F., Rowland, G.H., Roy‐Barman, M., Tagliabue, A., Torfstein, A., Winckler, G. & Zhou, Y. (2020). 230Th Normalization: New Insights on an Essential Tool for Quantifying Sedimentary Fluxes in the Modern and Quaternary Ocean. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 35: e2019PA003820.