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On both paper-and-pencil and field-based tests of spatial ability, there are big differences in performance between individuals of the same age and education level.
participant 1 chart
participant 8 chart
Ishikawa (2002)
individual differences histogram
based on data from Hegarty et al. (2004)
Review description
of Mental Rotations
Review description of
Learning of Spatial Layout
Implication: Expect wide differences among your students in performance on spatially-demanding tasks.